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Telephone system / international

This page shows the value of the Telephone system / international information field for all countries in the Country Guide.

Notes on this field are available at the Information Field Notes page.

Afghanistan

satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) linked only to Iran and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region); commercial satellite telephone center in Ghazni

Albania

inadequate; international traffic carried by microwave radio relay from the Tirana exchange to Italy and Greece

Algeria

5 submarine cables; microwave radio relay to Italy, France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; coaxial cable to Morocco and Tunisia; participant in Medarabtel; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik, and 1 Arabsat

American Samoa

satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Andorra

landline circuits to France and Spain

Angola

satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Anguilla

microwave radio relay to island of Saint Martin (Guadeloupe and Netherlands Antilles)

Antarctica

NA

Antigua and Barbuda

1 coaxial submarine cable; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Saba (Netherlands Antilles) and Guadeloupe

Argentina

satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); two international gateways near Buenos Aires; Atlantis II submarine cable (1999)

Armenia

Yerevan is connected to the Trans-Asia-Europe fiber-optic cable through Iran; additional international service is available by microwave radio relay and landline connections to the other countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States and through the Moscow international switch and by satellite to the rest of the world; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat

Aruba

1 submarine cable to Sint Maarten (Netherlands Antilles); extensive interisland microwave radio relay links

Australia

submarine cables to New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and Indonesia; satellite earth stations - 10 Intelsat (4 Indian Ocean and 6 Pacific Ocean), 2 Inmarsat (Indian and Pacific Ocean regions)

Austria

satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 2 Eutelsat

Azerbaijan

the old Soviet system of cable and microwave is still serviceable; satellite service between Baku and Turkey provides access to 200 countries; additional satellite providers supply services between Baku and specific countries; Azerbaijan is a signator of the Trans-Asia-Europe Fiber-Optic Line (TAE); their lines are not laid but a Turkish satellite and a microwave link between Azerbaijan and Iran could provide Azerbaijan worldwide access

Bahamas, The

tropospheric scatter and submarine cable to Florida; 3 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Bahrain

tropospheric scatter to Qatar and UAE; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia; submarine cable to Qatar, UAE, and Saudi Arabia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat

Bangladesh

satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Indian Ocean); international radiotelephone communications and landline service to neighboring countries

Barbados

satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Trinidad and Saint Lucia

Belarus

Belarus is a member of the Trans-European Line (TEL), Trans-Asia-Europe Fiber-Optic Line (TAE) and has access to the Trans-Siberia Line (TSL); three fiber-optic segments provide connectivity to Latvia, Poland, Russia, and Ukraine; worldwide service is available to Belarus through this infrastructure; additional analog lines to Russia; Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik earth stations

Belgium

5 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Eutelsat

Belize

satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Benin

satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); submarine cable

Bermuda

3 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Bhutan

international telephone and telegraph service is by landline through India; a satellite earth station was planned (1990)

Bolivia

satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Bosnia and Herzegovina

no satellite earth stations

Botswana

two international exchanges; digital microwave radio relay links to Zambia, Zimbabwe, and South Africa; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Brazil

3 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region east), connected by microwave relay system to MERCOSUR Brazilsat B3 satellite earth station

British Indian Ocean Territory

international telephone service is carried by satellite (2000)

British Virgin Islands

submarine cable to Bermuda

Brunei

satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean); digital submarine cable links to Malaysia, Singapore, and Philippines

Bulgaria

direct dialing to 58 countries; satellite earth stations - 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region); 2 Intelsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions)

Burkina Faso

satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Burundi

satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Cambodia

adequate but expensive landline and cellular service available to all countries from Phnom Penh and major provincial cities; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region)

Cameroon

satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Canada

5 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) and 2 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region)

Cape Verde

2 coaxial submarine cables; HF radiotelephone to Senegal and Guinea-Bissau; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Cayman Islands

1 submarine coaxial cable; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Central African Republic

satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Chad

satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Chile

satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

China

satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Pacific Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region) and 1 Inmarsat (Pacific and Indian Ocean regions); several international fiber-optic links to Japan, South Korea, Hong Kong, Russia, and Germany

Christmas Island

external telephone and telex services are provided by Intelsat satellite

Cocos (Keeling) Islands

telephone, telex, and facsimile communications with Australia and elsewhere via satellite; 1 satellite earth station of NA type

Colombia

satellite earth stations - 6 Intelsat, 1 Inmarsat; 3 fully digitalized international switching centers; 8 submarine cables

Comoros

HF radiotelephone communications to Madagascar and Reunion

Congo, Democratic Republic of the

satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Congo, Republic of the

satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Cook Islands

satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Costa Rica

connected to Central American Microwave System; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); two submarine cables (1999)

Cote d'Ivoire

satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean); 2 coaxial submarine cables (June 1999)

Croatia

digital international service is provided through the main switch in Zagreb; Croatia participates in the TEL project which consists of two fiber-optic trunk connections with Slovenia and a fiber-optic trunk line from Rijeka to Split and Dubrovnik; Croatia is also investing in ADRIA 1, a joint fiber-optic project with Germany, Albania, and Greece (2000)

Cuba

satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region)

Cyprus

tropospheric scatter; 3 coaxial and 5 fiber-optic submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean), 2 Eutelsat, 2 Intersputnik, and 1 Arabsat

Czech Republic

satellite earth stations - 2 Intersputnik (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions), 1 Intelsat, 1 Eutelsat

Denmark

18 submarine fiber-optic cables linking Denmark with Norway, Sweden, Russia, Poland, Germany, Netherlands, UK, Faroe Islands, Iceland, and Canada; satellite earth stations - 6 Intelsat, 10 Eutelsat, 1 Orion, 1 Inmarsat (Blaavand-Atlantic-East); note - the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) share the Danish earth station and the Eik, Norway, station for world-wide Inmarsat access

Djibouti

submarine cable to Jiddah, Suez, Sicily, Marseilles, Colombo, and Singapore; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; Medarabtel regional microwave radio relay telephone network

Dominica

microwave radio relay and SHF radiotelephone links to Martinique and Guadeloupe; VHF and UHF radiotelephone links to Saint Lucia

Dominican Republic

1 coaxial submarine cable; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Ecuador

satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Egypt

satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean), 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat; 5 coaxial submarine cables; tropospheric scatter to Sudan; microwave radio relay to Israel; a participant in Medarabtel and a signatory to Project Oxygen (a global submarine fiber-optic cable system)

El Salvador

satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); connected to Central American Microwave System

Equatorial Guinea

international communications from Bata and Malabo to African and European countries; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Eritrea

NA

Estonia

fiber-optic cables to Finland, Sweden, Latvia, and Russia provide worldwide packet switched service; two international switches are located in Tallinn

Ethiopia

open wire to Sudan and Djibouti; microwave radio relay to Kenya and Djibouti; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Pacific Ocean)

Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)

satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) with links through London to other countries

Faroe Islands

satellite earth stations - 1 Orion; 1 fiber-optic submarine cable linking the Faroe Islands with Denmark and Iceland

Fiji

access to important cable links between US and Canada as well as between NZ and Australia; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Finland

1 submarine cable; satellite earth stations - access to Intelsat transmission service via a Swedish satellite earth station, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Finland shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden)

France

satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (with total of 5 antennas - 2 for Indian Ocean and 3 for Atlantic Ocean), NA Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region); HF radiotelephone communications with more than 20 countries

French Guiana

satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

French Polynesia

satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Gabon

satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Gambia, The

microwave radio relay links to Senegal and Guinea-Bissau; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Gaza Strip

NA

Georgia

Georgia and Russia are working on a fiber-optic line between P'ot'i and Sochi (Russia); present international service is available by microwave, landline, and satellite through the Moscow switch; international electronic mail and telex service available

Germany

satellite earth stations - 14 Intelsat (12 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region), 2 Intersputnik (1 Atlantic Ocean region and 1 Indian Ocean region); 7 submarine cable connections; 2 HF radiotelephone communication centers; tropospheric scatter links

Ghana

satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); microwave radio relay link to Panaftel system connects Ghana to its neighbors

Gibraltar

radiotelephone; microwave radio relay; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Greece

tropospheric scatter; 8 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocean region)

Greenland

2 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Grenada

new SHF radiotelephone links to Trinidad and Tobago and Saint Vincent; VHF and UHF radio links to Trinidad

Guadeloupe

satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); microwave radio relay to Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, and Martinique

Guam

satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean); submarine cables to US and Japan

Guatemala

connected to Central American Microwave System; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Guernsey

1 submarine cable

Guinea

satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Guinea-Bissau

NA

Guyana

tropospheric scatter to Trinidad; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Haiti

satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Holy See (Vatican City)

uses Italian system

Honduras

satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); connected to Central American Microwave System

Hong Kong

satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Pacific Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean); coaxial cable to Guangzhou, China; access to 5 international submarine cables providing connections to ASEAN member nations, Japan, Taiwan, Australia, Middle East, and Western Europe

Hungary

Hungary has fiber-optic cable connections with all neighboring countries; the international switch is in Budapest; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean regions), 1 Inmarsat, 1 very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system of ground terminals

Iceland

satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Iceland shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden)

India

satellite earth stations - 8 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocean region); nine gateway exchanges operating from Mumbai (Bombay), New Delhi, Calcutta, Chennai (Madras), Jalandhar, Kanpur, Gaidhinagar, Hyderabad, and Ernakulam; 4 submarine cables - LOCOM linking Chennai (Madras) to Penang; Indo-UAE-Gulf cable linking Mumbai (Bombay) to Al Fujayrah, UAE; India-SEA-ME-WE-3, SEA-ME-WE-2 with landing sites at Cochin and Mumbai (Bombay); Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) with landing site at Mumbai (Bombay)

Indonesia

satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)

Iran

HF radio and microwave radio relay to Turkey, Azerbaijan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Syria, Kuwait, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan; submarine fiber-optic cable to UAE with access to Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG); Trans Asia Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line runs from Azerbaijan through the northern portion of Iran to Turkmenistan with expansion to Georgia and Azerbaijan; satellite earth stations - 9 Intelsat and 4 Inmarsat; Internet service available but limited to electronic mail to promote Iranian culture

Iraq

satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region) and 1 Arabsat (inoperative); coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Jordan, Kuwait, Syria, and Turkey; Kuwait line is probably nonoperational

Ireland

satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Israel

3 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean)

Italy

satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (with a total of 5 antennas - 3 for Atlantic Ocean and 2 for Indian Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region), and NA Eutelsat; 21 submarine cables

Jamaica

satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); 3 coaxial submarine cables

Japan

satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Pacific Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region), and 1 Inmarsat (Pacific and Indian Ocean regions); submarine cables to China, Philippines, Russia, and US (via Guam)

Jersey

3 submarine cables

Johnston Atoll

NA

Jordan

satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat, 1 Arabsat, and 29 land and maritime Inmarsat terminals; fiber-optic cable to Saudi Arabia and microwave radio relay link with Egypt and Syria; connection to international submarine cable FLAG (Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe); participant in MEDARABTEL; international links total about 4,000

Kazakhstan

international traffic with other former Soviet republics and China carried by landline and microwave radio relay; with other countries by satellite and by the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat

Kenya

satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat

Kiribati

satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean) (Note: Kiribati is being linked to the Pacific Ocean Cooperative Telecommunications Network, which should improve telephone service)

Korea, North

satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Russian (Indian Ocean Region); other international connections through Moscow and Beijing

Korea, South

fiber-optic submarine cable to China; the Russia-Korea-Japan submarine cable; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Pacific Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat (Pacific Ocean region)

Kuwait

coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia; linked to Bahrain, Qatar, UAE via the Fiber-Optic Gulf (FOG) cable; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean, 2 Indian Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean), and 2 Arabsat

Kyrgyzstan

connections with other CIS countries by landline or microwave radio relay and with other countries by leased connections with Moscow international gateway switch and by satellite; satellite earth stations - 1 Intersputnik and 1 Intelsat; connected internationally by the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line

Laos

satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region)

Latvia

international connections are now available via cable and a satellite earth station at Riga, enabling direct connections for most calls (1998)

Lebanon

satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean) (erratic operations); coaxial cable to Syria; microwave radio relay to Syria but inoperable beyond Syria to Jordan; 3 submarine coaxial cables

Lesotho

satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Liberia

satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Libya

satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat, NA Arabsat, and NA Intersputnik; submarine cables to France and Italy; microwave radio relay to Tunisia and Egypt; tropospheric scatter to Greece; participant in Medarabtel (1999)

Liechtenstein

linked to Swiss networks by cable and microwave radio relay

Lithuania

landline connections to Latvia and Poland; major international connections are to Denmark, Sweden, and Norway by submarine cable for further transmission by satellite

Luxembourg

3 channels leased on TAT-6 coaxial submarine cable (Europe to North America)

Macau

HF radiotelephone communication facility; access to international communications carriers provided via Hong Kong and China; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of

NA

Madagascar

submarine cable to Bahrain; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region)

Malawi

satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean)

Malaysia

submarine cables to India, Hong Kong, and Singapore; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)

Maldives

satellite earth station - 3 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Mali

satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean)

Malta

2 submarine cables; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Man, Isle of

fiber-optic cable, microwave radio relay, satellite earth station, submarine cable

Marshall Islands

satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean); US Government satellite communications system on Kwajalein

Martinique

microwave radio relay to Guadeloupe, Dominica, and Saint Lucia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Mauritania

satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 2 Arabsat

Mauritius

satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean); new microwave link to Reunion; HF radiotelephone links to several countries

Mayotte

microwave radio relay and HF radiotelephone communications to Comoros and other international connections

Mexico

satellite earth stations - 32 Intelsat, 2 Solidaridad (giving Mexico improved access to South America, Central America, and much of the US as well as enhancing domestic communications), numerous Inmarsat mobile earth stations; linked to Central American Microwave System of trunk connections; high capacity Columbus-2 fiber-optic submarine cable with access to the US, Virgin Islands, Canary Islands, Morocco, Spain, and Italy (1997)

Micronesia, Federated States of

satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Moldova

service through Romania and Russia via landline; satellite earth stations - Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik

Monaco

no satellite earth stations; connected by cable into the French communications system

Mongolia

satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean Region)

Montserrat

NA

Morocco

7 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; microwave radio relay to Gibraltar, Spain, and Western Sahara; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Algeria; participant in Medarabtel; fiber-optic cable link from Agadir to Algeria and Tunisia

Mozambique

satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean)

Myanmar

satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Namibia

fiber-optic cable to South Africa, microwave radio relay link to Botswana, direct links to other neighboring countries; connected to Africa ONE and South African Far East (SAFE) submarine cables through South Africa; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat

Nauru

satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Nepal

radiotelephone communications; microwave landline to India; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Netherlands

5 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 2 Atlantic Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions) (1996)

Netherlands Antilles

2 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

New Caledonia

satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

New Zealand

submarine cables to Australia and Fiji; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Nicaragua

satellite earth stations - 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region) and 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Niger

satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean)

Nigeria

satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean); coaxial submarine cable SAFE (South African Far East)

Niue

NA

Norfolk Island

radiotelephone service with Sydney (Australia)

Northern Mariana Islands

satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Norway

2 buried coaxial cable systems; 4 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations - NA Eutelsat, NA Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Norway shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Sweden)

Oman

satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat

Pakistan

satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean); 3 operational international gateway exchanges (1 at Karachi and 2 at Islamabad); microwave radio relay to neighboring countries

Palau

satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Panama

1 coaxial submarine cable; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); connected to the Central American Microwave System

Papua New Guinea

submarine cables to Australia and Guam; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean); international radio communication service

Paraguay

satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Peru

satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); Pan American submarine cable

Philippines

9 international gateways; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 2 Pacific Ocean); submarine cables to Hong Kong, Guam, Singapore, Taiwan, and Japan

Pitcairn Islands

radiotelephone

Poland

satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat, NA Eutelsat, 2 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions), and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region)

Portugal

6 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to Azores; note - an earth station for Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region) is planned

Puerto Rico

satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat; submarine cable to US

Qatar

tropospheric scatter to Bahrain; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia and UAE; submarine cable to Bahrain and UAE; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat

Reunion

radiotelephone communication to Comoros, France, Madagascar; new microwave route to Mauritius; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Romania

satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat; new digital international direct-dial exchanges operate in Bucharest; note - Romania is an active participant in several international telecommunication network projects (1999)

Russia

Russia is connected internationally by three undersea fiber-optic cables; digital switches in several cities provide more than 50,000 lines for international calls; satellite earth stations provide access to Intelsat, Intersputnik, Eutelsat, Inmarsat, and Orbita

Rwanda

international connections employ microwave radio relay to neighboring countries and satellite communications to more distant countries; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) in Kigali (includes telex and telefax service)

Saint Helena

major coaxial submarine cable relay point between South Africa, Portugal, and UK at Ascension; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Saint Kitts and Nevis

international calls are carried by radiotelephone to Antigua and Barbuda and from there switched to submarine cable or to Intelsat, or carried to Saint Martin (Guadeloupe and Netherlands Antilles) by radiotelephone and switched to Intelsat

Saint Lucia

direct microwave radio relay link with Martinique and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; tropospheric scatter to Barbados; international calls beyond these countries are carried by Intelsat from Martinique

Saint Pierre and Miquelon

radiotelephone communication with most countries in the world; 1 earth station in French domestic satellite system

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

VHF/UHF radiotelephone from Saint Vincent to Barbados; new SHF radiotelephone to Grenada and to Saint Lucia; access to Intelsat earth station in Martinique through Saint Lucia

Samoa

satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

San Marino

microwave radio relay and cable connections to Italian network; no satellite earth stations

Sao Tome and Principe

satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Saudi Arabia

microwave radio relay to Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, Qatar, UAE, Yemen, and Sudan; coaxial cable to Kuwait and Jordan; submarine cable to Djibouti, Egypt and Bahrain; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (3 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean), 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocean region)

Senegal

4 submarine cables; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Serbia and Montenegro

satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Seychelles

direct radiotelephone communications with adjacent island countries and African coastal countries; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Sierra Leone

satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Singapore

submarine cables to Malaysia (Sabah and Peninsular Malaysia), Indonesia, and the Philippines; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean), and 1 Inmarsat (Pacific Ocean region)

Slovakia

3 international exchanges, 1 in Bratislava and 2 in Banska Bystrica, are available; Slovakia is participating in several international telecommunications projects which will increase the availability of external services

Slovenia

NA

Solomon Islands

satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Somalia

international connections are available from Mogadishu by satellite

South Africa

2 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 2 Atlantic Ocean)

South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands

coastal radiotelephone station at Grytviken

Spain

22 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to adjacent countries

Sri Lanka

submarine cables to Indonesia and Djibouti; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (1999)

Sudan

satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Arabsat

Suriname

satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Svalbard

satellite earth station - 1 of NA type (for communication with Norwegian mainland only)

Swaziland

satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Sweden

5 submarine coaxial cables; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Sweden shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Norway)

Switzerland

satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean)

Syria

satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region); 1 submarine cable; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, and Turkey; participant in Medarabtel

Taiwan

satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Pacific Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean); submarine cables to Japan (Okinawa), Philippines, Guam, Singapore, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Australia, Middle East, and Western Europe (1999)

Tajikistan

linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics, and by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; Dushanbe linked by Intelsat to international gateway switch in Ankara (Turkey); satellite earth stations - 1 Orbita and 2 Intelsat

Tanzania

satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean)

Thailand

satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)

Togo

satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Symphonie

Tokelau

radiotelephone service to Samoa; government-regulated telephone service (TeleTok), with 3 satellite earth stations, established in 1997

Tonga

satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Trinidad and Tobago

satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Barbados and Guyana

Tunisia

5 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Algeria and Libya; participant in Medarabtel; two international gateway digital switches

Turkey

international service is provided by three submarine fiber-optic cables in the Mediterranean and Black Seas, linking Turkey with Italy, Greece, Israel, Bulgaria, Romania, and Russia, by 12 Intelsat earth stations, and by 328 mobile satellite terminals in the Inmarsat and Eutelsat systems

Turkmenistan

linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and to other countries by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; a new telephone link from Ashgabat to Iran has been established; a new exchange in Ashgabat switches international traffic through Turkey via Intelsat; satellite earth stations - 1 Orbita and 1 Intelsat

Turks and Caicos Islands

2 submarine cables; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Tuvalu

NA

Uganda

satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat; analog links to Kenya and Tanzania

Ukraine

two new domestic trunk lines are a part of the fiber-optic Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) system and three Ukrainian links have been installed in the fiber-optic Trans-European Lines (TEL) project which connects 18 countries; additional international service is provided by the Italy-Turkey-Ukraine-Russia (ITUR) fiber-optic submarine cable and by earth stations in the Intelsat, Inmarsat, and Intersputnik satellite systems

United Arab Emirates

satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; submarine cables to Qatar, Bahrain, India, and Pakistan; tropospheric scatter to Bahrain; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia

United Kingdom

40 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 10 Intelsat (7 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region), and 1 Eutelsat; at least 8 large international switching centers

United States

24 ocean cable systems in use; satellite earth stations - 61 Intelsat (45 Atlantic Ocean and 16 Pacific Ocean), 5 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region), and 4 Inmarsat (Pacific and Atlantic Ocean regions) (2000)

Uruguay

satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Uzbekistan

linked by landline or microwave radio relay with CIS member states and to other countries by leased connection via the Moscow international gateway switch; after the completion of the Uzbek link to the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable, Uzbekistan will be independent of Russian facilities for international communications; Inmarsat also provides an international connection, albeit an expensive one; satellite earth stations - NA (1998)

Vanuatu

satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Venezuela

3 submarine coaxial cables; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 PanAmSat; participating with Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia in the construction of an international fiber-optic network

Vietnam

satellite earth stations - 2 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region)

Virgin Islands

submarine cable and satellite communications; satellite earth stations - NA

Wake Island

NA

Wallis and Futuna

NA

West Bank

NA (Note: Israeli company BEZEK and the Palestinian company PALTEL are responsible for communication services in the West Bank)

Western Sahara

tied into Morocco's system by microwave radio relay, tropospheric scatter, and satellite; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) linked to Rabat, Morocco

World

NA

Yemen

satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region), and 2 Arabsat; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia and Djibouti

Zambia

satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean)

Zimbabwe

satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat; two international digital gateway exchanges (in Harare and Gweru)
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