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Telephone system / domestic

This page shows the value of the Telephone system / domestic information field for all countries in the Country Guide.

Notes on this field are available at the Information Field Notes page.

Afghanistan

very limited telephone and telegraph service; in 1997, telecommunications links were established between Mazar-e Sharif, Herat, Kandahar, Jalalabad, and Kabul through satellite and microwave systems

Albania

obsolete wire system; no longer provides a telephone for every village; in 1992, following the fall of the communist government, peasants cut the wire to about 1,000 villages and used it to build fences

Algeria

good service in north but sparse in south; domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations (20 additional domestic earth stations are planned)

American Samoa

good telex, telegraph, facsimile and cellular telephone services; domestic satellite system with 1 Comsat earth station

Andorra

modern system with microwave radio relay connections between exchanges

Angola

limited system of wire, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter

Anguilla

modern internal telephone system

Antarctica

NA

Antigua and Barbuda

good automatic telephone system

Argentina

microwave radio relay and a domestic satellite system with 40 earth stations serve the trunk network

Armenia

the majority of subscribers and the most modern equipment are in Yerevan (this includes paging and mobile cellular service)

Aruba

more than adequate

Australia

domestic satellite system

Austria

highly developed and efficient

Azerbaijan

local - the majority of telephones are in Baku or other industrial centers - about 700 villages still do not have public telephone service; intercity; all long distance service must use Azertel's (Ministry of Communications) lines; satellite service connects Baku to a modern switch in its separated enclave of Naxcivan

Bahamas, The

totally automatic system; highly developed

Bahrain

modern fiber-optic integrated services; digital network with rapidly growing use of mobile cellular telephones

Bangladesh

modernizing; introducing digital systems; trunk systems include VHF and UHF microwave, and some fiber-optic cable in cities

Barbados

island-wide automatic telephone system

Belarus

local - Minsk has a digital metropolitan network and a cellular NMT-450 network; waiting lists for telephones are long; local service outside Minsk is neglected and poor; intercity - Belarus has a partly developed fiber-optic backbone system presently serving at least 13 major cities (1998); Belarus's fiber optics form synchronous digital hierarchy rings through other countries' systems; an inadequate analog system remains operational

Belgium

nationwide cellular telephone system; extensive cable network; limited microwave radio relay network

Belize

trunk network depends primarily on microwave radio relay

Benin

fair system of open wire, microwave radio relay, and cellular connections

Bermuda

modern, fully automatic telephone system

Bhutan

domestic telephone service is very poor with few telephones in use

Bolivia

primary trunk system, which is being expanded, employs digital microwave radio relay; some areas are served by fiber-optic cable; mobile cellular systems are being expanded

Bosnia and Herzegovina

NA

Botswana

small system of open-wire lines, microwave radio relay links, and a few radiotelephone communication stations

Brazil

extensive microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 64 earth stations

British Indian Ocean Territory

all commercial telephone services are available, including connection to the Internet

British Virgin Islands

NA

Brunei

NA

Bulgaria

extensive but antiquated transmission system of coaxial cable and microwave radio relay; telephone service is available in most villages; a more modern digital cable trunk line now connects switching centers in most of the regions, the others being connected by digital microwave

Burkina Faso

microwave radio relay, open wire, and radiotelephone communication stations

Burundi

sparse system of open wire, radiotelephone communications, and low-capacity microwave radio relay

Cambodia

NA

Cameroon

cable, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter

Canada

domestic satellite system with about 300 earth stations

Cape Verde

interisland microwave radio relay system with both analog and digital exchanges; work is in progress on a submarine fiber-optic cable system which was scheduled for completion in 1998

Cayman Islands

NA

Central African Republic

network consists principally of microwave radio relay and low-capacity, low-powered radiotelephone communication

Chad

fair system of radiotelephone communication stations

Chile

extensive microwave radio relay links; domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations

China

interprovincial fiber-optic trunk lines and cellular telephone systems have been installed; a domestic satellite system with 55 earth stations is in place

Christmas Island

NA

Cocos (Keeling) Islands

NA

Colombia

nationwide microwave radio relay system; domestic satellite system with 41 earth stations; fiber-optic network linking 50 cities

Comoros

HF radiotelephone communications and microwave radio relay

Congo, Democratic Republic of the

barely adequate wire and microwave radio relay service in and between urban areas; domestic satellite system with 14 earth stations

Congo, Republic of the

primary network consists of microwave radio relay and coaxial cable

Cook Islands

the individual islands are connected by a combination of satellite earth stations, microwave systems, and VHF and HF radiotelephone; within the islands, service is provided by small exchanges connected to subscribers by open wire, cable, and fiber-optic cable

Costa Rica

point-to-point and point-to-multi-point microwave, fiber-optic and coaxial cable link rural areas; Internet service is available

Cote d'Ivoire

open-wire lines and microwave radio relay; 90% digitalized

Croatia

reconstruction plan calls for replacement of all analog circuits with digital and enlarging the network; a backup will be included in the plan for the main trunk

Cuba

principal trunk system, end to end of country, is coaxial cable; fiber-optic distribution in Havana and on Isla de la Juventud; 2 microwave radio relay installations (one is old, US-built; the other newer, Soviet-built); both analog and digital mobile cellular service established

Cyprus

open wire, fiber-optic cable, and microwave radio relay

Czech Republic

70% of exchanges now digital; existing copper subscriber systems now being enhanced with Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) equipment to accommodate Internet and other digital signals; trunk systems include fiber-optic cable and microwave radio relay

Denmark

buried and submarine cables and microwave radio relay form trunk network, 4 cellular radio communications systems

Djibouti

microwave radio relay network

Dominica

fully automatic network

Dominican Republic

relatively efficient system based on islandwide microwave radio relay network

Ecuador

facilities generally inadequate and unreliable

Egypt

principal centers at Alexandria, Cairo, Al Mansurah, Ismailia, Suez, and Tanta are connected by coaxial cable and microwave radio relay

El Salvador

nationwide microwave radio relay system

Equatorial Guinea

NA

Eritrea

very inadequate; most telephones are in Asmara; government is seeking international tenders to improve the system

Estonia

local - the Ministry of Transport and Communications is expanding cellular telephone services to form rural networks; intercity - highly developed fiber-optic backbone (double loop) system presently serving at least 16 major cities (1998)

Ethiopia

open wire; microwave radio relay; radio communication in the HF, VHF, and UHF frequencies; two domestic satellites provide the national trunk service

Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)

government-operated radiotelephone and private VHF/CB radiotelephone networks provide effective service to almost all points on both islands

Faroe Islands

digitalization was to have been completed in 1998

Fiji

NA

Finland

cable, microwave radio relay, and an extensive cellular net take provide of domestic needs

France

extensive cable and microwave radio relay; extensive introduction of fiber-optic cable; domestic satellite system

French Guiana

fair open wire and microwave radio relay system

French Polynesia

NA

Gabon

adequate system of cable, microwave radio relay, tropospheric scatter, radiotelephone communication stations, and a domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations

Gambia, The

adequate network of microwave radio relay and open wire

Gaza Strip

rudimentary telephone services provided by an open wire system

Georgia

local - T'bilisi and K'ut'aisi have cellular telephone networks with about 10,000 customers total; urban areas 20 telephones/100 people; rural areas 4 telephones/100 people; intercity - a fiber-optic line connects T'bilisi to K'ut'aisi (Georgia's second largest city); nationwide pager service

Germany

Germany is served by an extensive system of automatic telephone exchanges connected by modern networks of fiber-optic cable, coaxial cable, microwave radio relay, and a domestic satellite system; cellular telephone service is widely available and includes roaming service to many foreign countries

Ghana

primarily microwave radio relay; wireless local loop has been installed

Gibraltar

automatic exchange facilities

Greece

microwave radio relay, open wire, and submarine cable

Greenland

microwave radio relay

Grenada

interisland VHF and UHF radiotelephone links

Guadeloupe

NA

Guam

NA

Guatemala

NA

Guernsey

NA

Guinea

microwave radio relay and radiotelephone communication

Guinea-Bissau

combination of microwave radio relay, open-wire lines, radiotelephone, and cellular communications

Guyana

microwave radio relay network for trunk lines

Haiti

coaxial cable and microwave radio relay trunk service

Holy See (Vatican City)

tied into Italian system

Honduras

NA

Hong Kong

microwave radio relay links and extensive fiber-optic network

Hungary

the system is digitalized and highly automated; trunk services are carried by fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay; a program for fiber-optic subscriber connections was initiated in 1996; heavy use is made of mobile cellular telephones

Iceland

the trunk network consists of coaxial and fiber-optic cables and microwave radio relay links

India

local service is provided by microwave radio relay and coaxial cable, with open wire and obsolete electromechanical and manual switchboard systems still in use in rural areas; starting in the 1980s, a substantial amount of digital switch gear has been introduced for local and long-distance service; long-distance traffic is carried mostly by coaxial cable and low-capacity microwave radio relay; since 1985 significant trunk capacity has been added in the form of fiber-optic cable and a domestic satellite system with 254 earth stations; mobile cellular service is provided in four metropolitan cities

Indonesia

interisland microwave system and HF radio police net; domestic satellite communications system

Iran

as a result of heavy investing in the telephone system since 1994, the number of long distance channels in the microwave radio relay trunk has grown substantially; many villages have been brought into the net; the number of main lines in the urban systems have approximately doubled; and thousands of mobile cellular subscribers are being served; moreover, the technical level of the system has been raised by the installation of thousands of digital switches

Iraq

the network consists of coaxial cables and microwave radio relay links

Ireland

microwave radio relay

Israel

good system of coaxial cable and microwave radio relay; all systems are digital

Italy

high-capacity cable and microwave radio relay trunks

Jamaica

NA

Japan

NA

Jersey

NA

Johnston Atoll

60-channel submarine cable, 22 DSN circuits by satellite, Autodin with standard remote terminal, digital telephone switch, Military Affiliated Radio System (MARS station), UHF/VHF air-ground radio, a link to the Pacific Consolidated Telecommunications Network (PCTN) satellite

Jordan

microwave radio relay transmission and coaxial and fiber-optic cable are employed on trunk lines; considerable use is made of mobile cellular systems; Internet service is available

Kazakhstan

intercity by landline and microwave radio relay; mobile cellular systems are available in most of Kazakhstan

Kenya

trunks are primarily microwave radio relay; data commonly transferred by a very small aperature terminal (VSAT)

Kiribati

NA

Korea, South

NA

Kuwait

new telephone exchanges provide a large capacity for new subscribers; trunk traffic is carried by microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, open wire and fiber-optic cable; a cellular telephone system operates throughout Kuwait, and the country is well supplied with pay telephones; approximately 15,000 Internet subscribers in 1996

Kyrgyzstan

principally microwave radio relay; one cellular provider, probably limited to Bishkek region

Laos

radiotelephone communications

Latvia

expansion underway in intercity trunk line connections, rural exchanges, and mobile systems; still many unsatisfied subscriber applications

Lebanon

primarily microwave radio relay and cable

Lesotho

consists of a few landlines, a small microwave radio relay system, and a minor radiotelephone communication system

Liberia

NA

Libya

microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, cellular, tropospheric scatter, and a domestic satellite system with 14 earth stations

Liechtenstein

NA

Lithuania

a national fiber-optic cable interurban trunk system is nearing completion; rural exchanges are being improved and expanded; mobile cellular systems are being installed; access to the Internet is available; still many unsatisfied telephone subscriber applications

Luxembourg

nationwide cellular telephone system; buried cable

Macau

NA

Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of

NA

Madagascar

open-wire lines, coaxial cables, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter links

Malawi

fair system of open-wire lines, microwave radio relay links, and radiotelephone communications stations

Malaysia

good intercity service provided on Peninsular Malaysia mainly by microwave radio relay; adequate intercity microwave radio relay network between Sabah and Sarawak via Brunei; domestic satellite system with 2 earth stations

Maldives

interatoll communication through microwave links; all inhabited islands are connected with telephone and fax service

Mali

network consists of microwave radio relay, open wire, and radiotelephone communications stations; expansion of microwave radio relay in progress

Malta

submarine cable and microwave radio relay between islands

Man, Isle of

landline, telefax, mobile cellular telephone system

Marshall Islands

Majuro Atoll and Ebeye and Kwajalein islands have regular, seven-digit, direct-dial telephones; other islands interconnected by shortwave radiotelephone (used mostly for government purposes)

Martinique

NA

Mauritania

mostly cable and open-wire lines; a recently completed domestic satellite telecommunications system links Nouakchott with regional capitals

Mauritius

primarily microwave radio relay

Mayotte

NA

Mexico

adequate telephone service for business and government, but the population is poorly served; domestic satellite system with 120 earth stations; extensive microwave radio relay network; considerable use of fiber-optic cable, coaxial cable, and mobile cellular service

Micronesia, Federated States of

islands interconnected by shortwave radiotelephone (used mostly for government purposes)

Moldova

new subscribers face long wait for service; mobile cellular telephone service being introduced

Monaco

NA

Mongolia

NA

Montserrat

NA

Morocco

good system composed of open-wire lines, cables, and microwave radio relay links; Internet available but expensive; principal switching centers are Casablanca and Rabat; national network nearly 100% digital using fiber-optic links; improved rural service employs microwave radio relay

Mozambique

microwave radio relay and tropospheric scatter

Myanmar

NA

Namibia

good urban services; fair rural service; microwave radio relay links major towns; connections to other populated places are by open wire; 100% digital

Nauru

NA

Nepal

NA

Netherlands

the existing system of multi-conductor cables is gradually being replaced by fiber-optic cables; the density of cellular telephone traffic is rapidly increasing and further modernization of the system is expected in the year 2001, with the introduction of the third generation of the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)

Netherlands Antilles

extensive interisland microwave radio relay links

New Caledonia

NA

New Zealand

NA

Nicaragua

wire and microwave radio relay

Niger

wire, radiotelephone communications, and microwave radio relay; domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations and 1 planned

Nigeria

intercity traffic is carried by coaxial cable, microwave radio relay, a domestic communications satellite system with 19 earth stations, and a coastal submarine cable; mobile cellular facilities and the Internet are available

Niue

single-line telephone system connects all villages on island

Norfolk Island

NA

Northern Mariana Islands

NA

Norway

domestic satellite system

Oman

open wire, microwave, radiotelephone communications, and a domestic satellite system with 8 earth stations

Pakistan

microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, cellular, and satellite

Palau

NA

Panama

NA

Papua New Guinea

mostly radiotelephone

Paraguay

fair microwave radio relay network

Peru

nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations

Philippines

domestic satellite system with 11 earth stations

Pitcairn Islands

NA

Poland

cable, open wire, and microwave radio relay; 3 cellular networks; local exchanges 56.6% digital

Portugal

generally adequate integrated network of coaxial cables, open wire, microwave radio relay, and domestic satellite earth stations

Puerto Rico

digital telephone system; cellular telephone service

Qatar

NA

Reunion

modern open wire and microwave radio relay network

Romania

poor service; 90% of telephone network is automatic; trunk network is mostly microwave radio relay, with some fiber-optic cable; about one-third of exchange capacity is digital; roughly 3,300 villages have no service

Russia

cross-country digital trunk lines run from Saint Petersburg to Khabarovsk, and from Moscow to Novorossiysk; the telephone systems in 60 regional capitals have modern digital infrastructures; cellular services, both analog and digital, are available in many areas; in rural areas, the telephone services are still outdated, inadequate, and low density

Rwanda

the capital, Kigali, is connected to the centers of the prefectures by microwave radio relay; the remainder of the network depends on wire and HF radiotelephone

Saint Helena

automatic network; HF radiotelephone from Saint Helena to Ascension, then into worldwide submarine cable and satellite networks

Saint Kitts and Nevis

interisland links are handled by VHF/UHF/SHF radiotelephone

Saint Lucia

system is automatically switched

Saint Pierre and Miquelon

NA

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

islandwide, fully automatic telephone system; VHF/UHF radiotelephone from Saint Vincent to the other islands of the Grenadines

Samoa

NA

San Marino

automatic telephone system completely integrated into Italian system

Sao Tome and Principe

minimal system

Saudi Arabia

extensive microwave radio relay and coaxial and fiber-optic cable systems

Senegal

above-average urban system; microwave radio relay, coaxial cable and fiber-optic cable in trunk system

Serbia and Montenegro

NA

Seychelles

radiotelephone communications between islands in the archipelago

Sierra Leone

national microwave radio relay system made unserviceable by military activities

Singapore

NA

Slovakia

predominantly an analog system which is now receiving digital equipment and is being enlarged with fiber-optic cable, especially in the larger cities; mobile cellular capability has been added

Slovenia

70% digital; full digital switching scheduled for 2000

Solomon Islands

NA

Somalia

recently, local cellular telephone systems have been established in Mogadishu and in several other population centers

South Africa

consists of carrier-equipped open-wire lines, coaxial cables, microwave radio relay links, fiber-optic cable, radiotelephone communication stations, and wireless local loops; key centers are Bloemfontein, Cape Town, Durban, Johannesburg, Port Elizabeth, and Pretoria

South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands

NA

Spain

NA

Sri Lanka

national trunk network consists mostly of digital microwave radio relay; fiber-optic links now in use in Colombo area and two fixed wireless local loops have been installed; competition is strong in mobile cellular systems; telephone density remains low at 2.6 main lines per 100 persons (1999)

Sudan

consists of microwave radio relay, cable, radiotelephone communications, tropospheric scatter, and a domestic satellite system with 14 earth stations

Suriname

microwave radio relay network

Svalbard

local telephone service

Swaziland

system consists of carrier-equipped, open-wire lines and low-capacity, microwave radio relay

Sweden

coaxial and multiconductor cable carry most voice traffic; parallel microwave radio relay network carries some additional telephone channels

Switzerland

extensive cable and microwave radio relay networks

Syria

coaxial cable and microwave radio relay network

Taiwan

provides modern telecommunications service for every business and private need; completely digitalized

Tajikistan

cable and microwave radio relay

Tanzania

trunk service provided by open wire, microwave radio relay, tropospheric scatter, and fiber-optic cable; some links being made digital

Thailand

microwave radio relay and multichannel cable; domestic satellite system being developed

Togo

microwave radio relay and open-wire lines for conventional system; cellular system has capacity of 10,000 telephones

Tokelau

radiotelephone service between islands

Tonga

NA

Trinidad and Tobago

NA

Tunisia

trunk facilities consist of open-wire lines, coaxial cable, and microwave radio relay

Turkey

additional digital exchanges are permitting a rapid increase in subscribers; the construction of a network of technologically advanced intercity trunk lines, using both fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay is facilitating communication between urban centers; remote areas are reached by a domestic satellite system; the number of subscribers to mobile cellular telephone service is growing rapidly

Turkmenistan

NA

Turks and Caicos Islands

NA

Tuvalu

radiotelephone communications between islands

Uganda

intercity traffic by wire, microwave radio relay, and radiotelephone communication stations, fixed and mobile cellular systems for short range traffic

Ukraine

at independence in December 1991, Ukraine inherited a telephone system that was antiquated, inefficient and in disrepair; more than 3.5 million applications for telephones could not be satisfied; telephone density is now rising slowly and the domestic trunk system is being improved; from a small base, the mobile cellular telephone system is expanding at a high rate

United Arab Emirates

microwave radio relay and coaxial cable

United Kingdom

equal mix of buried cables, microwave radio relay, and fiber-optic systems

United States

a large system of fiber-optic cable, microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, and domestic satellites carries every form of telephone traffic; a rapidly growing cellular system carries mobile telephone traffic throughout the country

Uruguay

most modern facilities concentrated in Montevideo; new nationwide microwave radio relay network

Uzbekistan

the domestic telephone system is being expanded and technologically improved, particularly in Tashkent and Samarqand, under contracts with prominent companies in industrialized countries; moreover, by 1998, six cellular networks had been placed in operation - four of the GSM type (Global System for Mobile Communication), one D-AMPS type (Digital Advanced Mobile Phone System), and one AMPS type (Advanced Mobile Phone System)

Vanuatu

NA

Venezuela

domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations; recent substantial improvement in telephone service in rural areas; substantial increase in digitalization of exchanges and trunk lines; installation of a national inter-urban fiber-optic network capable of digital multimedia services

Vietnam

NA

Virgin Islands

modern, uses fiber-optic cable and microwave radio relay

Wake Island

NA

Wallis and Futuna

NA

West Bank

NA

Western Sahara

NA

World

NA

Yemen

the network consists of microwave radio relay, cable, and tropospheric scatter

Zambia

high-capacity microwave radio relay connects most larger towns and cities; several cellular telephone services in operation; Internet service is widely available; very small aperature terminal (VSAT) networks are operated by private firms

Zimbabwe

consists of microwave radio relay links, open-wire lines, radiotelephone communication stations, fixed wireless local loop installations, and a substantial mobile cellular network; Internet connection is available in Harare and planned for all major towns and for some of the smaller ones
 

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Site Version 1.75 - Last updated Wednesday, December 20, 2006 at 9:44AM PST on host Saturn

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