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Political parties and leaders

This page shows the value of the Political parties and leaders information field for all countries in the Country Guide.

Notes on this field are available at the Information Field Notes page.

Afghanistan

Harakat-i-Islami (Islamic Movement) [Mohammed Asif MOHSENI]; Harakat-Inqilab-i-Islami (Islamic Revolutionary Movement) [Mohammad Nabi MOHAMMADI]; Hizbi Islami-Gulbuddin (Islamic Party) [Gulbuddin HIKMATYAR faction]; Hizbi Islami-Khalis (Islamic Party) [Yunis KHALIS faction]; Hizbi Wahdat-Akbari faction (Islamic Unity Party) [Mohammad Akbar AKBARI]; Ittihad-i-Islami Barai Azadi Afghanistan (Islamic Union for the Liberation of Afghanistan) [Abdul Rasul SAYYAF]; Jabha-i-Najat-i-Milli Afghanistan (Afghanistan National Liberation Front) [Sibghatullah MOJADDEDI]; Mahaz-i-Milli-Islami (National Islamic Front) [Sayed Ahamad GAILANI]; Taliban (Religious Students Movement) [Mohammad OMAR]; United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan comprised of Jumbesh-i-Melli Islami (National Islamic Movement) [Abdul Rashid DOSTAM]; Jamiat-i-Islami (Islamic Society) [Burhanuddin RABBANI and Ahmad Shah MASOOD]; and Hizbi Wahdat-Khalili faction (Islamic Unity Party) [Abdul Karim KHALILI]

Albania

Albanian Republican Party or PR [Fatmir MEHDIU]; Albanian Socialist Party or PS (formerly the Albania Workers Party) [Fatos NANO, chairman]; Albanian United Right or DBSH (includes PBK, Albanian Republican Party or PRS, AND PDD) [Abaz ERMENJI]; Christian Democratic Party or PDK [Zef BUSHATI]; Democratic Alliance or PAD [Neritan CEKA]; Democratic Party or PD [Sali BERISHA]; Democratic Party of the Right or PDD [Petrit KALAKULA]; Liberal Union Party [Teodor LACO]; Movement of Legality Party or PLL [Ekrem SPAHIA]; National Front (Balli Kombetar) or PBK [Abaz ERMENJI]; Party of National Unity or PUK [Idajet BEQIRI]; Right National Front [Hysni SELFO]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Skender GJINUSHI]; Unity for Human Rights Party or PBDNJ [Vasil MELO, chairman]; note - Teodar LACO of the Liberal Union Party was leader of the Social Democratic Union of Albania or PBSD

Algeria

Algerian Democratic Front or FAD [Sid-Ahmed GHOZALI]; Algerian National Front or ANF [Moussa TOUATI]; Algerian Renewal Party or PRA [Noureddine BOUKROUH, chairman]; Democratic National Rally or RND [Ahmed OUYAHIA, chairman]; Islamic Salvation Front or FIS (outlawed April 1992) [Ali BELHADJ, Dr. Abassi MADANI, Rabeh KEBIR (self-exile in Germany)]; Liberal Social Party [Ahmed KHELIL]; Movement for Democracy in Algeria or MDA [Ahmed Ben BELLA]; Movement for Loyalty and Justice [Ahmed Taleb IBRAHIMI, president; Movement of a Peaceful Society or MSP [Mahfoud NAHNAH, chairman]; Nahda Movement or Al Nahda [Abdallah DJABALLAH, president]; National Liberation Front or FLN [Boualem BENHAMOUDA, secretary general]; National Party for Solidarity and Development or PNSD [Rabah BENCHERIF]; National Republican Alliance or ANR [Redha MALEK]; Rally for Culture and Democracy or RCD [Said SAADI, secretary general]; Republican Progressive Party [Khadir DRISS]; Social Democratic Movement or MDS [Hachemi CHERIF]; Socialist Forces Front or FFS [Hocine Ait AHMED, secretary general (self-exile in Switzerland)]; Union for Democracy and Freedoms [Mouley BOUKHALAFA]; Workers Party or PT [Louisa HANOUN] (Note: the government established a multiparty system in September 1989 and, as of 31 December 1990, over 50 legal parties existed; a new party law was enacted in March 1997)

American Samoa

Democratic Party [leader NA]; Republican Party [leader NA]

Andorra

Liberal Party of Andorra (Partit Liberal d'Andorra) or PLA [Marc FORNE]; Liberal Union or UL [Francesc CERQUEDA]; National Democratic Group or AND [Ladislau BARO SOLA]; National Democratic Initiative or IDN [Vincenc MATEU ZAMORA]; New Democracy or ND [Jaume BARTOMEU CASSANY]; Unio Parroquial d'Ordino or UPO [Simo DURO COMA] (Note: there are two other small parties)

Angola

Liberal Democratic Party or PLD [Analia de Victoria PEREIRA]; National Front for the Liberation of Angola or FNLA [disputed leadership: Lucas NGONDA, Holden ROBERTO]; National Union for the Total Independence of Angola or UNITA [Jonas SAVIMBI], largest opposition party engaged in years of armed resistance before joining the current unity government in April 1997; Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola or MPLA [Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS] ruling party in power since 1975; Social Renewal Party or PRS [disputed leadership: Eduardo KUANGANA, Antonio MUACHICUNGO] (Note: about a dozen minor parties participated in the 1992 elections but won few seats and have little influence in the National Assembly)

Anguilla

Anguilla Democratic Party or ADP [Victor BANKS]; Anguilla National Alliance or ANA [Osbourne FLEMING]; Anguilla United Party or AUP [Hubert HUGHES]

Antigua and Barbuda

Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement or ACLM [leader NA]; Antigua Labor Party or ALP [Lester Bryant BIRD]; Barbuda People's Movement or BPM [leader NA]; Progressive Labor Movement or PLM [leader NA]; United National Democratic Party or UNDP [leader NA]; United Progressive Party or UPP [Baldwin SPENCER], a coalition of three opposition political parties - UNDP, ACLM, and PLM

Argentina

Action for the Republic or AR [Domingo CAVALLO]; Alliance (UCR, Frepaso and others) [leader NA]; Front for a Country in Solidarity or Frepaso (a four-party coalition) [Carlos ALVAREZ]; Justicialist Party or PJ [Carlos Saul MENEM] (Peronist umbrella political organization); Radical Civic Union or UCR [Raul ALFONSIN]; several provincial parties

Armenia

Armenian Communist Party or ACP [Vladimir DARBINIAN]; Armenian National Movement or ANM [Vano SIRADEGIAN, chairman]; Armenian Revolutionary Federation ("Dashnak" Party) or ARF [Vahan HAVHANNISIAN]; Christian Democratic Union or CDU [Azat ARSHAKYN, chairman]; Democratic Liberal Party [Ramkavar AZATAKAN, chairman]; Free Armenian's Mission [Ruben MNATSANIAN, chairman]; Law and Unity Party [Artashes GEGAMIAN, chairman]; Law-Governed Party [Artur BAGDASARIAN, chairman]; Mission Party [Artush PAPOIAN, chairman]; National Democratic Union or NDU [Vazgen MANUKIAN]; National State Party [Samvel SHAGINIAN]; People's Party of Armenia [Stepan DEMIRCHYAN]; Republican Party [Andranik MARKARYAN]; Shamiram Women's Movement or SWM [Maria NERSISSIAN]; Social Democratic (Hnchakian) Party [Yeghia NACHARIAN]; Stability Group [Vartan AYVAZIAN, chairman]; Union of National Self-Determination or NSDU [Paruir HAIRIKIAN, chairman]

Aruba

Aruban Democratic Party or PDA [Leo BERLINSKI]; Aruban Liberal Party or OLA [Glenbert CROES]; Aruban Patriotic Party or PPA [Benny NISBET]; Aruban People's Party or AVP [Jan (Henny) H. EMAN]; Aruba Solidarity Movement or MAS [leader NA]; Democratic Action '86 or AD '86 [Arturo ODUBER]; Electoral Movement Party or MEP [Nelson ODUBER]; Electoral People's Movement or MEP [Betico CROES]; For a Restructured Aruba Now or PARA [Urbana LOPEZ]; National Democratic Action or ADN [Pedro Charro KELLY]; New Patriotic Party or PPN [Eddy WERLEMEN]

Australia

Australian Democratic Party [Meg LEES]; Australian Labor Party [Kim BEAZLEY]; Green Party [Bob BROWN]; Liberal Party [John Winston HOWARD]; National Party [John ANDERSON]; One Nation Party [Pauline HANSON]

Austria

Austrian People's Party or OeVP [Wolfgang SCHUESSEL, chairman]; Communist Party or KPOe [Walter BAIER, chairman]; Freedom Party of Austria or FPOe [Susanne RIESS-PASSER]; Liberal Forum or LF [Heide SCHMIDT]; Social Democratic Party of Austria or SPOe [Viktor KLIMA, chairman]; The Greens or GA [Alexander VAN DER BELLEN, party spokesman]

Azerbaijan

Azerbaijan Democratic Party or ADP [Ilyas ISMAYLOV]; Azerbaijan Popular Front or APF [Abulfaz ELCHIBEY, chairman]; Civic Solidarity [Sabir RUSTAMXANLI]; Communist Party of Azerbaijan or CPA-2 [Firudin HASANOV]; Democratic Party of Independence of Azerbaijan [Vagit KERIMOV]; Liberal Party of Azerbaijan [Lala HAJIYEVA]; Motherland Party [Fazail AGAMALI]; Musavat Party [Isa GAMBAR, chairman]; New Azerbaijan Party or NAP [Heydar ALIYEV, chairman]; Party for National Independence of Azerbaijan or PNIA [Etibar MAMMADOV, chairman]; People's Democratic Party of Azerbaijan [Rafig TURABXANLY]; Social Democratic Party of Azerbaijan or SDP [Zardusht ALIZADE, chairman]; Vahdat Party [Leyla YUNUSOV, Jabrayil ALIZADE]

Bahamas, The

Free National Movement or FNM [Hubert Alexander INGRAHAM]; Progressive Liberal Party or PLP [Perry CHRISTIE]

Bahrain

political parties prohibited

Bangladesh

Awami League or AL [Sheikh HASINA Wajed]; Bangladesh Communist Party or BCP [Saifuddin Ahmed MANIK]; Bangladesh Nationalist Party or BNP [Khaleda ZIAur Rahman]; Jamaat-E-Islami or JI [Motiur Rahman NIZAMI]; Jatiyo Party or JP [Hussain Mohammad ERSHAD]

Barbados

Barbados Labor Party or BLP [Owen ARTHUR]; Democratic Labor Party or DLP [David THOMPSON]; National Democratic Party or NDP [Richard HAYNES]

Belarus

Agrarian Party [Aleksandr PAVLOV, acting chairman]; Belarusian Communist Party or KPB [Viktor CHIKIN, chairman]; Belarusian Green Party or BPZ [Mikalay KARTASH, chairman]; Belarusian Labor Party or BPP [Aleksandr BUKHVOSTOV, chairman]; Belarusian Patriotic Movement (Belarusian Patriotic Party) or BPR [Anatoliy BARANKEVICH, chairman]; Belarusian Popular Front or BNF [Vintsuk VYACHORKA, chairman]; Belarusian Social-Democrat or SDBP [Nikolay STATKEVICH, chairman]; Belarusian Social-Democratic Party Hramada [Stanislav SHUSHKEVICH, chairman]; Belarusian Social Sports Party or BSSP [Aleksandr ALEKSANDROVICH, chairman]; Belarusian Socialist Party [Vyacheslav KUZNETSOV]; Civic Accord Bloc (United Civic Party) or CAB [Stanislav BOGDANKEVICH, chairman]; Ecological Party or BEP [Liudmila YELIZAROVA, chairperson]; Liberal-Democratic Party or LDPB [Sergei GAYDUKEVICH, chairman]; Party of All-Belarusian Unity and Concord or UPNAZ [Dmitriy BULAKOV, chairman]; Party of Communists Belarusian or PKB [Sergei KALYAKIN, chairman]; Party of Popular Accord or PPA [Leanid SECHKA]; Republican Party of Labor and Justice or RPPS [Anatoliy NETYLKIN, chairman]; Women's Party Nadezhda [Valentina POLEVIKOVA, chairperson]

Belgium

AGALEV (Flemish Greens) [Wilfried BERVOETS]; ECOLO (Francophone Greens) [no president]; Flemish Christian Democrats or CVP (Christian People's Party) [Stefaan DE CLERCK, president]; Flemish Liberal Democrats or VLD [Karel DE GUCHT, president]; Flemish Socialist Party or SP [Patrick JANSSENS, president]; Francophone Christian Democrats or PSC (Social Christian Party) [Joelle MILQUET, president]; Francophone Democratic Front or FDF [Olivier MAINGAIN, president]; Francophone Liberal Reformation Party or PRL [Daniel DUCARME, president]; Francophone Socialist Party or PS [Elio DI RUPO, president]; National Front or FN [Dr. FERET]; Vlaams Blok or VB [Frank VANHECKE]; Volksunie or VU [Geert BOURGEOIS, president]; other minor parties

Belize

People's United Party or PUP [Said MUSA]; United Democratic Party or UDP [Manuel ESQUIVEL, Dean BARROW]

Benin

African Movement for Democracy and Progress or MADEP [Sefou FAGBOHOUN]; Alliance for Democracy and Progress or ADP [Adekpedjou Sylvain AKINDES]; Alliance of the Social Democratic Party or PSD and the National Union for Solidarity and Progress or UNSP [Bruno AMOUSSOU]; Benin Renaissance Party or PRB [Nicephore SOGLO]; Cameleon Alliance or AC [leader NA]; Car-DUNYA [leader NA]; Communist Party of Benin or PCB [Pascal FANTONDJI, first secretary]; Democratic Renewal Party or PRD [Adrien HOUNGBEDJI]; Front for Renewal and Development or FARD-ALAFIA; Impulse for Progress and Democracy or IPD [Bertin BORNA]; Liberal Democrats' Rally for National Reconstruction-Vivoten or RDL-Vivoten [Severin ADJOVI]; Movement for Citizens' Commitment and Awakening or MERCI [Severin ADJOVI]; New Generation for the Republic or NG [leader NA]; Our Common Cause or NCC [Francois Odjo TANKPINON]; Rally for Democracy and Pan-Africanism or RDP [Dominique HOYMINOU, Dr. Giles Auguste MINONTIN]; The Star Alliance (Alliance E'toile) [leader NA]; Union for National Democracy and Solidarity or UDS [Adamou N'Diaye MAMA]

Bermuda

National Liberal Party or NLP [Charles JEFFERS]; Progressive Labor Party or PLP [Jennifer SMITH]; United Bermuda Party or UBP [Pamela GORDON]

Bhutan

no legal parties

Bolivia

Alternative of Democratic Socialism or ASD [Jerjes JUSTINIANO]; April 9 Revolutionary Vanguard or VR-9 [Carlos SERRATE]; Bolivian Communist Party or PCB [Marcos DOMIC]; Bolivian Renovating Alliance or ARBOL [Marcelo FERNANDEZ, Hugo VILLEGAS]; Bolivian Socialist Falange or FSB [leader NA]; Christian Democrat or PDC [Benjamin MIGUEL]; Civic Solidarity Union or UCS [Johnny FERNANDEZ]; Conscience of the Fatherland or CONDEPA [Remedios LOZA Alvarado]; Free Bolivia Movement or MBL [Antonio ARANIBAR]; Front of Katarista Unity or FULKA [Genaro FLORES]; Front of National Salvation or FSN [Manual MORALES Davila]; Katarismo National Unity or KND [Filepe KITTELSON]; Movement of the Revolutionary Left or MIR [Oscar EID]; Movement Towards Socialism-Popular Instrument for Solidarity with the People or MAS-IPSP [leader Evo MORALES]; Nationalist Democratic Action or ADN [Enrique TORO]; Nationalist Katarista Movement or MKN [Fernando UNTOJA]; Nationalist Revolutionary Movement or MNR [Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA]; New Republican Force or NFR [Manfred REYES VILLA]; New Youth Force [Alfonso SAAVEDRA Bruno]; Patriotic Axis of Convergence or EJE-P [Ramiro BARRANECHEA]; Popular Patriotic Movement or MPP [Julio MANTILLA]; Revolutionary Front of the Left or FRI [Oscar ZAMORA]; Socialist Party One or PS-1 [leader NA]; Solidarity and Democracy or SYD [leader NA]; Tupac Katari Revolutionary Liberation Movement or MRTK-L [Victor Hugo CARDENAS Conde]; United Left or IU [Marcos DOMIC]; Unity and Progress Movement or MUP [Ivo KULJIS] (Note: political blocs include: left - MBL, EJE-P, VR-9, ASD, FRI, PCB, IU, FSN, PS-1, FSB, and MAS; center left - MIR, PDC, and New Youth Force; center - MNR; center right - ADN and NFR; populist - UCS, CONDEPA, SYD, MUP, and MPP; evangelical - ARBOL; indigenous - MRTK-L, MKN, and KND)

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnian Party of Rights or BSP [leader NA]; Bosnian Party or BOSS [Mirnes AJANOVIC]; Bosnian Patriotic Party or BPS [Sefer HALILOVIC]; Center Coalition or KC (includes LBO, RS) [leader NA]; Civic Democratic Party or GDS [Ibrahim SPAHIC]; Coalition for King and Fatherland or KKO (Dubravko Prstojevic]; Coalition for a United and Democratic BIH or KCD [Alija IZETBEGOVIC; includes SDA and SBH]; Croatian Democratic Union of BiH or HDZ-BiH [Ante JELAVIC]; Croatian Party of Rights or HSP [Zdravko HRSTIC]; Croatian Peasants Party of BiH or HSS-BiH [Ilija SIMIC]; Democratic Party for Banja Luka and Krajina [Nikola SPIRIC]; Democratic Party of Pensioners or DSP [Alojz KNEZOVIC]; Democratic Peoples Union or DNZ [Fikret ABDIC]; Liberal Bosniak Organization or LBO [Muhamed FILIPOVIC]; Liberal Party or LS [Rasim KADIC, president]; Muslim-Bosnia Organization or MBO [Dzevad HADZIAVDIC]; New Croatian Initiative or NHI [Kresimir ZUBAK]; Party for Bosnia and Herzegovina or SBH [Haris SILAJDZIC]; Party for Democratic Action or SDA [Alija IZETBEGOVIC]; Party of Democratic Progress of the Republika Srpska [Mladen IVANIC]; Party of Independent Social Democrats or SNSD [Milorad DODIK]; Radical Party Republika Srpska of RSRS [Miroslav RADOVANOVIC]; Republican Party or RS [Stjepan KLJUIC]; Serb Coalition for Republika Srpska or SKRS [Predrag LAZAREVIC]; Serb Democratic Party or Serb Lands or SDS [Dragan KALINIC]; Serb National Alliance or SNS [Biljana PLAVSIC]; Serb Radical Party-Republika Srpska or SRS-RS [Nikola POPLASEN] (banned by the Office of the High Representative - see Government note - from participation in the April elections); Sloga or Unity [Zivko RADISIC] (includes SNS, SPRS, SNSD); Social Democratic Party BIH or SDP-BiH [Zlatko LAGUMDZIJA]; Socialist Party of Republika Srpska or SPRS [Zivko RADISIC]

Botswana

Botswana Democratic Party or BDP [Festus MOGAE]; Botswana National Front or BNF [Kenneth KOMA]; Botswana Congress Party or BCP [Michael DINGAKE]; Botswana People's Party or BPP [Knight MARIPE] (Note: main parties are: BDP, BNF, BCP; other minor parties joined forces in 1999 to form the Botswana Alliance Movement or BAM [Kenneth KOMA, chairman] but did not capture any parliamentary seats; the BAM parties are: the United Action Party [Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO], the Social Democratic Union, the Independence Freedom Party [Motsamai MPHO], and the Botswana Progressive Union [Gideon KAELO])

Brazil

Brazilian Democratic Movement Party or PMDB [Jader BARBALHO, president]; Brazilian Labor Party or PTB [Jose Carlos MARTINEZ, president]; Brazilian Social Democracy Party or PSDB [Teotinho VILELA Filho, president]; Brazilian Socialist Party or PSB [Miguel ARRAES, president]; Brazilian Progressive Party or PPB [Paulo MALUF, president]; Communist Party of Brazil or PCdoB [Joao AMAZONAS, chairman]; Democratic Labor Party or PDT [Leonel BRIZOLA, president]; Liberal Front Party or PFL [Jorge BORNHAUSEN, president]; Liberal Party or PL [Valdemar COSTA Neto, president]; Popular Socialist Party or PPS [Roberto FREIRE, president]; Worker's Party or PT [Jose DIRCEU, president]

British Virgin Islands

Concerned Citizens Movement or CCM [E. Walwyn BREWLEY]; Independent People's Movement or IPM [Omar HODGE and Allen O'NEAL]; United Party or UP [Conrad MADURO]; Virgin Islands Party or VIP [Ralph T. O'NEAL]

Brunei

Brunei Solidarity National Party or PPKB in Malay [Haji Mohd HATTA bin Haji Zainal Abidin, president]; the PPKB is the only legal political party in Brunei; it was registered in 1985, but became largely inactive after 1988, it was revived in 1995 and again in 1998; it has less than 200 registered party members; other parties include Brunei People's Party or PRB (banned in 1962) and Brunei National Democratic Party (registered in May 1965, deregistered by the Brunei Government in 1988)

Bulgaria

Alliance for National Salvation or ANS (coalition led mainly by Movement for Rights and Freedoms or DPS) [Ahmed DOGAN]; Bulgarian Business Bloc or BBB [Georgi GANCHEV]; Bulgarian Socialist Party or BSP [Georgi PURVANOV, chairman]; Democratic Left of DL [leader NA]; Euro-left [Aleksandur TOMOV]; Movement for Rights and Freedoms or DPS (member of LDU) [Ahmed DOGAN]; People's Union or PU [Anastasiya MOZER]; Union of Democratic Forces or UtdDF (an alliance of pro-democratic parties) [Ivan KOSTOV]

Burkina Faso

African Democratic Rally or RDA [Gerard Kango OUEDRAOGO, Clement SANOU]; Alliance for Democracy and Federation or ADF [Herman YAMEOGO]; Congress for Democracy and Progress or CDP [Din Salif SAWADAGO]; Group for Progressive Democrats or GDP [Issa TIENDREBEOGO]; Movement for Tolerance and Progress or MTP [Noyabtigungu Congo KABORE]; Party for African Independence or PAI [leader NA]; Party for Democracy and Progress or PDP [Joseph KI-ZERBO]; Party for Progress and Social Development or PPDS [leader NA]; Union of Greens for the Development of Burkina Faso or UVDB [Ram OVEDRAGO]

Burundi

Unity for National Progress or UPRONA [Luc RUKINGAMA, president]; Burundi Democratic Front or FRODEBU [Jean MINANI, president] (Note: opposition parties, legalized in March 1992, include Burundi African Alliance for the Salvation or ABASA [leader NA]; Rally for Democracy and Economic and Social Development or RADDES [Cyrille SIGEJEJE, chairman]; Party for National Redress or PARENA [Jean-Baptiste BAGAZA]; Socialist Party of Burundi or PSB [leader NA]; People's Reconciliation Party or PRP [leader NA])

Cambodia

Buddhist Liberal Party or BLP [IENG MOULY]; Cambodian Pracheachon Party or Cambodian People's Party or CPP [CHEA SIM]; Khmer Citizen Party or KCP [NGUON SOEUR]; National United Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Cambodia or FUNCINPEC [Prince NORODOM RANARIDDH]; Sam Rangsi Party or SRP (formerly Khmer Nation Party or KNP) [SAM RANGSI]

Cameroon

Cameroonian Democratic Union or UDC [Adamou NDAM NJOYA]; Cameroon Liberation and Development Movement or MLDC [Marcel YONDO]; Democratic Rally of the Cameroon People or RDPC (the RDPC or its predecessor parties have ruled since independence) [Paul BIYA, president]; Movement for the Defense of the Republic or MDR [Dakole DAISSALA]; Movement for the Liberation of Cameroonian Youths or MLJC [leader NA]; National Union for Democracy and Progress or UNDP [Maigari BELLO BOUBA, chairman]; Social Democratic Front or SDF [John FRU NDI]; Union of Cameroonian Populations or UPC-K [Augustin Frederick KODOG]

Canada

Bloc Quebecois [Gilles DUCEPPE]; Liberal Party [Jean CHRETIEN]; New Democratic Party [Alexa MCDONOUGH]; Progressive Conservative Party [Joe CLARK]; Reform Party [Preston MANNING]

Cape Verde

African Party for Independence of Cape Verde or PAICV [Pedro Verona Rodrigues PIRES, chairman]; Movement for Democracy or MPD [Prime Minister Carlos VEIGA, founder and president]; Party for Democratic Convergence or PCD [Dr. Eurico MONTEIRO, president]; Party of Work and Solidarity or PTS [Dr. Oresimo SILVEIRA, president]

Cayman Islands

no formal political parties (Note: the National Team, an organization formed in 1992 to oppose some proposals in the constitutional draft, continues to exert legislative power)

Central African Republic

Alliance for Democracy and Progress or ADP [leader NA]; Central African Democratic Assembly or RDC [Andre KOLINGBA]; Civic Forum or FC [Gen. Timothee MALENDOMA]; Democratic Forum or FODEM [Charles MASSI]; Liberal Democratic Party or PLD [Nestor KOMBO-NAGUEMON]; Movement for Democracy and Development or MDD [David DACKO]; Movement for the Liberation of the Central African People or MLPC [the party of the president, Ange-Felix PATASSE]; Patriotic Front for Progress or FPP [Abel GOUMBA]; People's Union for the Republic or UPR [leader NA]; National Unity Party or PUN [Jean-Paul NGOUPANDE]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Enoch LAKOUE]

Chad

National Union for Development and Renewal or UNDR [Saleh KEBZABO]; Patriotic Salvation Movement or MPS [Maldom Bada ABBAS, chairman] (originally in opposition but now the party in power and the party of the president); Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Lal Mahamat CHOUA]; Union for Renewal and Democracy or URD [Gen. Wadal Abdelkader KAMOUGUE]

Chile

Chile 2000 - main party is UCCP [Alejandro GARCIA-HUIDBORO]; Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Gutenberg MARTINEZ]; Coalition of Parties for Democracy ("Concertacion") or CPD [Eduardo FREI Ruiz-Tagle] - including PDC, PS, PPD, PRSD; Independent Democratic Union or UDI [Pablo LONGUEIRA]; National Renewal or RN [Alberto CARDEMIL]; Party for Democracy or PPD [Sergio BITAR]; Party of the South or PS [leader NA]; Progressive Center-Center Union or UCCP [Francisco Javier ERRAZURIZ]; Radical Social Democratic Party or PRSD [Anselmo SULE]; Socialist Party or PS [Ricardo NUNEZ]; Union for the Progress of Chile ("Alliance for Chile") or UPP [Arturo ALESSANDRI Besa] - including RN and UDI

China

Chinese Communist Party or CCP [JIANG Zemin, General Secretary of the Central Committee]; eight registered small parties controlled by CCP

Christmas Island

none

Cocos (Keeling) Islands

none

Colombia

Democratic Alliance-April 19 Movement or AD/M-19 is a coalition of small leftist parties and dissident liberals and conservatives [Carlos Franco ECHAVARRIA, Antonio NAVARRO Wolff, Otty PATINO, Carlos Alonso LUCIO]; Liberal Party or PL [Jose Fernando BAUTISTA]; New Democratic Force or NDF [leader NA]; Patriotic Union or UP is a legal political party formed by Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia or FARC and Colombian Communist Party or PCC [Aida ABELLA]; Social Conservative Party or PSC [Dr. Eugenio MERLANO de la Ossa]

Comoros

Front National pour la Justice or FNJ (Islamic party in opposition) [Ahmed Abdallah MOHAMED, Ahmed ABOUBACAR, Soidiki M'BAPANOZA]; Rassemblement National pour le Development or RND (party of the government) [Ali Bazi SELIM]

Congo, Democratic Republic of the

sole legal party until January 1991 - Popular Movement of the Revolution or MPR [Catherine NZUZI]; other parties include Democratic Social Christian Party or PDSC [Andre BO-BOLIKO]; Unified Lumumbast Party or PALU [Antoine GIZENGA]; Union for Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS [Etienne TSHISEKEDI wa Mulumba]; Union of Federalists and Independent Republicans or UFERI [Maitre LUKAMBA Michel] (Note: President KABILA, who lifted an 18-month ban on political party activity in January 1999, dissolved his Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Congo-Zaire or AFDL just before his government's self-imposed two-year mandate expired; he then created People's Power Committees)

Congo, Republic of the

the most important of the many parties are the Congolese Labor Party or PCT [Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO, president]; Association for Democracy and Social Progress or RDPS [Jean-Pierre Thystere TCHICAYA, president]; Congolese Movement for Democracy and Integral Development or MCDDI [Michel MAMPOUYA]; Pan-African Union for Social Development or UPADS [Martin MBERI]; Union of Democratic Forces or UFD [Sebastian EBAO]

Cook Islands

Cook Islands Party or CIP [Joe WILLIAMS]; Democratic Alliance Party or DAP [Terepai MAOATE]; New Alliance Party or NAP [leader NA]

Costa Rica

Agriculture Labor Action or PALA [Carlos Alberto SOLIS Blanco]; Costa Rican Renovation Party or PRC [Carlos AVENDANO Calvo]; Democratic Force Party or PFD [Jose NUNEZ]; Libertarian Movement Party or PML [Otto GUEVARA]; National Christian Alliance Party or ANC [Alejandro MADRIGAL Benavides]; National Independent Party or PNI [Jorge GONZALEZ Marten]; National Integration Party or PIN [Walter MUNOZ Cespedes]; National Liberation Party or PLN [Sonia PICADO]; Social Christian Unity Party or PUSC [Luis Manuel CHACON] (Note: mainly a two-party system - PUSC and PLN; numerous small parties share less than 25% of population's support)

Cote d'Ivoire

Democratic Party of Cote d'Ivoire or PDCI [Jean Konan BANNY, acting head]; Ivorian Popular Front or FPI [Laurent GBAGBO]; Ivorian Worker's Party or PIT [Francis WODIE]; Rally of the Republicans or RDR [Henriette DAGRI-DIABATE]; over 20 smaller parties

Croatia

Action of the Social Democrats of Croatia or ASH [Silvije DEGEN]; Alliance of Croatian Coast and Mountains Department or PGS [Luciano SUSANJ]; Croatian Christian Democratic Union or HKDU [Marko VESELICA, president]; Croatian Democratic Independents or HND [Josip MANOLIC, president]; Croatian Democratic Union or HDZ [Vladimir SEKS, acting president]; Croatian Party of Rights or HSP [Anto DJAPIC]; Croatian Party of Rights 1861 or HSP 1861 [Dobrislav PARAGA]; Croatian Peasant Party or HSS [Zlatko TOMCIC]; Croatian People's Party or HNS [Radimir CACIC, president]; Croatian Social Liberal Party or HSLS [Drazen BUDISA, president]; Independent Democratic Serb Party or SDSS [Vojislav STANIMIROVIC]; Istrian Democratic Assembly or IDS [Ivan JAKOVCIC]; Liberal Party or LP [Vlado GOTOVAC, president]; Party of Democratic Action or SDA [Semso TANKOVIC]; Primorje Gorski Kotar Alliance [leader NA]; Serbian National Party or SNS [Milan DJUKIC]; Slanvonsko-Baranja Croatian Party or SBHS [Damir JURIC]; Social Democratic Party of Croatia or SDP [Ivica RACAN] (Note: the Social Democratic Party or SDP and the Croatian Social Liberal Party or HSLS formed a coalition as did the HSS, HNS, LP, and IDS, which together defeated the Croatian Democratic Union or HDZ in the 2000 lower house parliamentary election)

Cuba

only party - Cuban Communist Party or PCC [Fidel CASTRO Ruz, first secretary]

Cyprus

Greek Cypriot area: Democratic Party or DIKO [Spyros KYPRIANOU]; Democratic Rally or DISY [Nikos ANASTASIADHIS]; Ecologists [Yeoryios PERDHIKIS]; New Horizons [Nikolaos KOUTSOU, secretary general]; Restorative Party of the Working People or AKEL (Communist Party) [Dimitrios CHRISTOFIAS]; United Democratic Union of Cyprus or EDEK [Vassos LYSSARIDIS]; United Democrats Movement or EDI (formerly Free Democrats Movement or KED) [George VASSILIOU]; Turkish Cypriot area: Communal Liberation Party or TKP [Mustafa AKINCI]; Democratic Party or DP [Serdar DENKTASH]; National Birth Party or UDP [Enver EMIN]; National Unity Party or UBP [Dervis EROGLU]; Our Party or BP [Okyay SADIKOGLU]; Patriotic Unity Movement or YBH [Ozker OZGUR]; Republican Turkish Party or CTP [Mehmet ALI TALAT]

Czech Republic

Assembly for the Republic or SPR-RSC [Miroslav SLADEK, chairman]; Christian Democratic Union-Czechoslovak People's Party or KDU-CSL [Jan KASAL, chairman]; Civic Democratic Alliance or ODA [Daniel KROUPA, chairman]; Civic Democratic Party or ODS [Vaclav KLAUS, chairman]; Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia or KSCM [Miroslav GREBENICEK, chairman]; Czech Social Democrats or CSSD [Milos ZEMAN, chairman]; Democratic Union or DEU [Ratibor MAJZLIK, chairman]; Freedom Union or US [Karel KUEHUL, acting chairman]; Quad Coalition [Richard FALBR, chairman] (includes KDU-CSL, US, ODA, DEU)

Denmark

Center Democratic Party [Mimi JAKOBSEN]; Christian People's Party [Jann SJURSEN]; Conservative Party [Bendt BENDTSEN]; Conservative People's Party [Pia Christmas MOLLER]; Danish People's Party [Pia KJAERSGAARD]; Liberal Party [Anders Fogh RASMUSSEN]; Progress Party [Aage BRUSGAARD]; Radical Liberal Party [Marianne JELVED]; Social Democratic Party [Poul Nyrup RASMUSSEN]; Social Liberal Party [Johannes LEBECH]; Socialist People's Party [Holger K. NIELSEN]; Unity Party [no leader]

Djibouti

Democratic National Party or PND [ADEN Robleh Awaleh]; Democratic Renewal Party or PRD [Mohamed Jama ELABE]; People's Progress Assembly or RPP [Hassan GOULED Aptidon] - the governing party

Dominica

Dominica Freedom Party or DFP [Charles SAVARIN]; Labor Party of Dominica or LPD [Rosie DOUGLAS]; United Workers Party or UWP [Edison JAMES]

Dominican Republic

Alliance for Democracy Party or APD [Maximilano Rabelais PUIG Miller, Nelsida MARMOLEJOS, Vicente BENGOA]; Anti-Imperialist Patriotic Union or UPA [Ignacio RODRIGUEZ Chiappini]; Democratic Quisqueyan Party or PQD [Elias WESSIN Chavez]; Democratic Union or UD [Fernando ALVAREZ Bogaert]; Dominican Communist Party or PCD [Narciso ISA Conde]; Dominican Liberation Party or PLD [Jose Tomas PEREZ]; Dominican Revolutionary Party or PRD [Hatuey DE CAMPS]; Dominican Worker's Party or PTD [Ivan RODRIGUEZ]; Independent Revolutionary Party or PRI [leader NA]; Liberal Party of the Dominican Republic or PLRD [Andres Van Der HORST]; National Progressive Force or FNP [Pelegrin CASTILLO]; National Veterans and Civilian Party or PNVC [Juan Rene BEAUCHAMPS Javier]; Popular Christian Party or PPC [Rogelio DELGADO Bogaert]; Social Christian Reformist Party or PRSC [Joaquin BALAGUER Ricardo] (Note: in 1983 several leftist parties, including the PCD, joined to form the Dominican Leftist Front or FID; however, they still retain individual party structures)

Ecuador

Concentration of Popular Forces or CFP [Averroes BUCARAM]; Democratic Left or ID [Rodrigo BORJA Cevallos]; Ecuadorian Conservative Party or PCE [Freddy BRAVO]; Pachakutik-New Country or P-NP [Nina PACARI and Freddy EHLERS]; Popular Democracy or DP [Ramiro RIVERA]; Popular Democratic Movement or MPD [Jaime HURTADO Gonzalez]; Radical Alfarista Front or FRA [Fabian ALARCON, director]; Roldosist Party or PRE [Abdala BUCARAM Ortiz, director]; Social Christian Party or PSC [Jaime NEBOT Saadi, president] (Note: political blocs include: far left - MPD; populist - CFP and P-NP; populist left - PRE; center left - ID, DP, and FRA; center right - PSC and PCE)

Egypt

Democratic Unionist Party [Mohammed 'Abd-al-Mun'im TURK]; Green Party [Kamal KIRAH]; Misr al-Fatah Party (Young Egypt Party) [leader NA]; Nasserist Arab Democratic Party [Dia' al-din DAWUD]; National Democratic Party or NDP [President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK, leader] - governing party; National Progressive Unionist Grouping or NPUG [Khalid MUHI AL-DIN]; New Wafd Party or NWP [Fu'ad SIRAJ AL-DIN]; Social Justice Party [Muhammad 'ABDAL-'AL]; Socialist Labor Party or SLP [Ibrahim SHUKRI]; Socialist Liberal Party or LSP [Mustafa Kamal MURAD]; Umma Party [Ahmad al-SABAHI] (Note: formation of political parties must be approved by government)

El Salvador

Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Rene AGUILUZ, secretary general]; Democratic Convergence or CD [Ruben ZAMORA, secretary general]; Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front or FMLN [Jose Fabio CASTILLO]; Liberal Democratic Party or PLD [Kirio Waldo SALGADO, president]; National Conciliation Party or PCN [Ciro CRUZ Zepeda, secretary general]; National Republican Alliance or ARENA [Walter ARAUJO]; Popular Labor Party or PPL [Ernesto VILANOVA, secretary general]; Social Christian Union or USC [Abraham RODRIGUEZ, president]; Social Democratic Party or PD [Jorge MELENDEZ and Juan MEDRANO]; United Democratic Center or CDU [Ruben ZAMORA], bloc includes CD and PD formed by merger of Christian Social Renewal Party or PRSC, National Solidarity Movement or MSN, and the Unity Movement or MU

Equatorial Guinea

Convergence Party for Social Democracy or CPDS [Placido Miko ABOGO]; Democratic Party for Equatorial Guinea or PDGE (ruling party) [Augustin Nse NFUMU]; Party for Progress of Equatorial Guinea or PPGE [Severo MOTO]; Popular Action of Equatorial Guinea or APGE [Miguel Esono EMAN]; Popular Union or UP [Fabian MUSA, general secretary]; Progressive Democratic Alliance or ADP [Victorino Bolekia BONAY, mayor of Malabo]

Eritrea

People's Front for Democracy and Justice or PFDJ, the only party recognized by the government [ISAIAS Afworki, PETROS Solomon]

Estonia

Center Party or K [Edgar SAVISAAR, chairman]; Coalition Party and Rural Union or KMU [Andrus OOVEL, chairman]; Country People's Party [Arnold RUUTEL]; Moderates or M [Andres TARAND]; Reform Party or RE [Siim KALLAS, chairman]; Union of Pro Patria or Fatherland League (Isamaaliit) [Mart LAAR, chairman]; United People's Party or UPPE [Viktor ANDREJEV, chairman]

Ethiopia

All-Amhara People's Organization or AAPO [Dr. ASRAT Woldeyes]; Coalition of Alternative Forces for Peace and Democracy or CAFPD [leader NA]; Ethiopian Democratic Union or EDU [leader NA]; Ethiopian Movement for Democracy, Peace, and Unity or EMDPU [GOSHU Walde]; Ethiopian National Democratic Party or ENDP [NEBIYU Samuel, FEKADU Gedamu]; Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front or EPRDF [MELES Zenawi]; Oromo Liberation Front or OLF [GELASA Dilbo]; dozens of small parties

Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)

none; all independents

Faroe Islands

Center Party [Tordur NICLASEN]; Christian People's Party [Niels Pauli DANIELSEN]; Home Rule Party [Helena Dam A. NEYSTABO]; Labor Front [leader NA]; People's Party [Oli BRECKMANN]; Republican Party [Finnbogi ISAKSON]; Social Democratic Party [Joannes EIDESGAARD]; The Faroese Party [Olavur CHRISTIANSEN]; Union Party [Edmund JOENSEN]

Fiji

Christian Fellowship Party (Veitokani ni Lewenivanua Vakarisito Party) or VLV (primarily Methodist Fijian) [leader NA]; Conservative Party of Fiji or CPF [leader NA]; Fiji Conservative Party or FCP [leader NA]; Fiji Independent Labor (Muslim) [leader NA]; Fiji Indian Congress Party [leader NA]; Fiji Indian Liberal Party [leader NA]; Fiji Labor Party or FLP [Mahendra CHAUDHRY]; Fijian Association Party or FAP [Adi Kuini SPEED]; Fijian Nationalist Party or FNP [Sakeasi BUTADROKA]; Fijian Political Party or SVT (primarily Fijian) [Maj. Gen. Sitiveni RABUKA]; Four Corners Party [leader NA]; General Electors' Association [David PICKERING]; General Voters Party or GVP [Leo SMITH]; National Federation Party or NFP (primarily Indian) [Jai Ram REDDY]; National Unity Party [Apisai TORA] (Note: in early 1995, ethnic Fijian members of the All National Congress or ANC merged with the Fijian Association or FA; the remaining members of the ANC have renamed their party the General Electors' Association)

Finland

Center Party or Kesk [Esko AHO]; Ecological Party or EPV [Eugen PARKATTI]; Finnish Christian Union or SKL [C. P. Bjarne KALLIS]; Green Union [Satu HASSI]; Leftist Alliance (Communist) composed of People's Democratic League and Democratic Alternative [Claes ANDERSSON]; Liberal People's Party or LKP [Pekka RYTILA]; National Coalition (conservative) Party or Kok [Sauli NIINISTO]; Rural Party or SMP [Raimo VISTBACKA]; Social Democratic Party or SDP [Paavo LIPPONEN]; Swedish People's Party or SFP [(Johan) Ole NORRBACK]; Young Finns [Risto PENTTILA]

France

Citizens Movement or MdC [Jean Pierre CHEVENEMENT]; Democratic Force or FD [leader NA]; Ecology Gereration or GE [Brice LALONDE]; French Communist Party or PCF [Robert HUE]; Independent Ecological Movement or MEI [Jenevieve ANDUEZA]; Left Radical Party or PRG (previously Radical Socialist Party or PRS and the Left Radical Movement or MRG) [Jean-Michel BAYLET]; Liberal Democracy or DL (originally Republican Party or PR) [Alain MADELIN]; Movement for France or LDI-MPF [Philippe DEVILLIERS]; National Center of Independents and Peasants or CNIP [Jean PERRIN]; National Front or FN [Jean-Marie LE PEN]; National Front-National Movement [Bruno MEGRET]; Popular Party for French Democracy or PPDF [Herve de CHARETTE]; Radical Party or RRRS [Thierry CORNILLET]; Rally for the Republic or RPR [Michelle ALLIOT-MARIE]; Reformers' Movement or MR [Jean-Pierre SOISSON]; Socialist Party or PS [Francois HOLLANDE]; The Greens (Les Verts) [Jean-Luc BENNAHMIAS]; The Right (La Droite) [Charles MILLON]; Union for French Democracy or UDF (coalition of UDC, FD, RRRS, PPDF) [Francois LEOTARD]; Union of the Center or UDC [leader NA]

French Guiana

Action Democrate Guiana or ADG [Andre LECANTE]; Democratic and European Rally of the Senate or RDSE [leader NA]; Guianese Socialist Party or PSG [Marie-Claude VERDAN]; Guyana Democratic Forces or FDG [Georges OTHILY]; Nationalist Popular Party of Guyana (Parti Nationaliste Populaire Guiana) or PNPG [Jose DORCY]; Rally for the Republic or RPR [Roland HO-WEN-SZE]; Socialist Party or PS [Pierre RIBARDIERE] (may be a subset of PSG); Union for French Democracy or UDF [R. CHOW-CHINE]; Union of Social Democrats (Union des Socialistes Democates) or USD [Theodore ROUMILLAC] (umbrella group of RPR and UDF); Walwari Committee [Christine TAUBIRA-DELANON]

French Polynesia

Centrist Union or UC [leader NA]; Entente Polynesian [Arthur CHUNG]; Haere i Mua [Alexandre LEONTIEFF]; Independent Front for the Liberation of Polynesia (Tavini Huiraatira) [Oscar TEMARU]; Independent Party (Ia Mana Te Nunaa) [Jacques DROLLET]; New Fatherland Party (Ai'a Api) [Emile VERNAUDON]; People's Rally for the Republic (Tahoeraa Huiraatira) [Gaston FLOSSE]; Polynesian Union Party (includes Te Tiarama and Pupu Here Ai'a Party) [Jean JUVENTIN]; Pupu Taina [Michel LAW]; Te Aratia Ote Nunaa (Tinomana Ebb); Te e'a No Maohi Nui [Jean-Marius RAAPOTO]

Gabon

African Forum for Reconstruction or FAR [leader NA]; Circle of Liberal Reformers or CLR [General Jean Boniface ASSELE]; Democratic and Republican Alliance or ADERE [Divungui-di-Ndinge DIDJOB]; Gabonese Democratic Party or PDG, former sole party [Simplice Nguedet MANZELA, secretary general]; Gabonese Party for Progress or PGP [Pierre-Louis AGONDJO-OKAWE, president]; Gabonese People's Union or UPG [Pierre MAMBOUNDOU]; Gabonese Socialist Union or USG [leader NA]; National Rally of Woodcutters (Bucherons) or RNB [Fr. Paul M'BA-ABESSOLE]; People's Unity Party or PUP [Louis Gaston MAYILA]; Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [leader NA]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Pierre Claver MAGANGA-MOUSSAVOU]

Gambia, The

Alliance for Patriotic Reorientation and Construction or APRC [Yahya A. J. J. JAMMEH]; National Reconciliation Party or NRP [Hamat N. K. BAH]; People's Democratic Organization for Independence and Socialism or PDOIS [Sidia JATTA]; United Democratic Party or UDP [Ousainou DARBOE] (Note: in August 1996 the government banned the following from participation in the elections of 1996: People's Progressive Party or PPP [former President Dawda K. JAWARA (in exile)], and two opposition parties - the National Convention Party or NCP [former Vice President Sheriff DIBBA] and the Gambian People's Party or GPP [Hassan Musa CAMARA])

Georgia

Citizen's Union of Georgia or CUG [Eduard SHEVARDNADZE]; Georgian United Communist Party or UCPG [Panteleimon GIORGADZE, chairman]; Greens Party [Giorgi GACHECHILADZE]; Industry Will Save Georgia or IWSG [Georgi Topadze]; Labor Party [Shalva NATELASHVILI]; National Democratic Party or NDP [Irina SARISHVILI-CHANTURIA]; National Independent Party or NIP [Irakli TSERETELI, chairman]; People's Party [Mamuka GIORGADZE]; Socialist Party or SPG [Vakhtang RCHEULISHVILI]; Union for "Revival" Party or AGUR [Alsan ABASHIDZE]; Union of Traditionalists or UGT [Akaki ASATIANI]; United Republican Party or URP [Nodar NATADZE, chairman]

Germany

Alliance '90/Greens [Gunda ROESTEL and Antje RADCKE]; Christian Democratic Union or CDU [Angela MERKEL]; Christian Social Union or CSU [Edmund STOIBER, chairman]; Free Democratic Party or FDP [Wolfgang GERHARDT, chairman]; Party of Democratic Socialism or PDS [Lothar BISKY, chairman]; Social Democratic Party or SPD [Gerhard SCHROEDER, chairman]

Ghana

Every Ghanaian Living Everywhere or EGLE [Owuraku AMOFA, chairman]; National Convention Party or NCP [Sarpong KUMA-KUMA]; National Democratic Congress or NDC [Dr. Huudu YAHAYA, general secretary]; New Patriotic Party or NPP [Peter Ala ADJETY]; People's Convention Party or PCP [P. K. DONKOH-AYIFI, acting chairman]; People's Heritage Party or PHP [Emmanuel Alexander ERSKINE]; People's National Convention or PNC [Edward MAHAMA]

Gibraltar

Gibraltar Labor Party/Association for the Advancement of Civil Rights or GCL/AACR [Adolfo CANEPA]; Gibraltar Liberal Party or GLP (has become the Gibraltar National Party or NP) [Joe GARCIA]; Gibraltar Social Democrats or SD [Peter CARUANA]; Gibraltar Socialist Labor Party or SL [Joe BOSSANO]; Gibraltar Socialist Liberal Alliance or GSLA [Joe BOSSANO] (includes SL and GLP)

Greece

Coalition of the Left and Progress (Synaspismos) [Nikolaos KONSTANDOPOULOS]; Communist Party of Greece or KKE [Aleka PAPARIGA]; Democratic Social Movement or DIKKI [Dhimitrios TSOVOLAS]; Liberal Party [Stephanos MANOS]; New Democracy or ND (conservative) [Konstandinos KARAMANLIS]; Panhellenic Socialist Movement or PASOK [Konstandinos SIMITIS]; Political Spring [Andonis SAMARAS]; Rainbow Coalition [Pavlos VOSKOPOULOS]

Greenland

Akulliit Party [Bjarne KREUTZMANN]; Atassut Party (Solidarity, a conservative party that favors continuing close relations with Denmark) [Daniel SKIFTE]; Candidate's League [leader NA]; Inuit Ataqatigiit or IA (Eskimo Brotherhood, a Marxist-Leninist party that favors complete independence from Denmark rather than home rule) [Josef MOTZFELDT]; Issituup (Polar Party) [Nicolai HEINRICH]; Siumut (Forward Party, a moderate socialist party that advocates more distinct Greenlandic identity and greater autonomy from Denmark) [Lars Emil JOHANSEN, chairman]

Grenada

Grenada United Labor Party or GULP [Herbert PREUDHOMME]; Maurice Bishop Patriotic Movement or MBPM [Terrence MARRYSHOW]; National Democratic Congress or NDC [George BRIZAN]; New National Party or NNP [Keith MITCHELL]; The Democratic Labor Party or DLP [Francis ALEXIS]; The National Party or TNP [Ben JONES]

Guadeloupe

Christian Movement for the Liberation of Guadeloupe or KLPG; Communist Party of Guadeloupe or PCG [Christian CELESTE]; diverse left parties [Jacques GILLOT]; diverse right parties [Simon IBO]; FGPS Dissidents or FRUI.G [Dominique LARIFLA]; Movement for an Independent Guadeloupe or MPGI [Luc REINETTE]; Popular Union for the Liberation of Guadeloupe or UPLG [Lucien PERRUTIN]; Progressive Democratic Party or PPDG [Henri BANGOU]; Rally for the Republic or RPR [Aldo BLAISE]; Socialist Party or PS [Abdon SAMAN]; Union for French Democracy or UDF [Marcel ESDRAS]

Guam

Democratic Party (party of the Governor) [leader NA]; Republican Party (controls the legislature) [leader NA]

Guatemala

Christian Democratic Party or DCG [Vinicio CEREZO Arevalo]; Democratic Union or UD [Jose CHEA Urruela]; Green Party or LOV [leader NA]; Guatemalan National Revolutionary Union or URNG [Jorge SOTO]; Guatemalan Republican Front or FRG [Efrain RIOS Montt]; National Advancement Party or PAN [Hector CIFUENTES]; New Guatemalan Democratic Front or FDNG [Rafael ARRIAGA Martinez]; New Nation Alliance or ANN [leader NA]; Progressive Liberator Party or PLP [leader NA]

Guernsey

none; all independents

Guinea

Democratic Party of Guinea or PDG-AST [Marcel CROS]; Democratic Party of Guinea-African Democratic Rally or PDG-RDA [El Hadj Ismael Mohamed Gassim GUSHEIN]; Party for Unity and Progress or PUP [Lansana CONTE] - the governing party; Party for Renewal and Progress or PRP [Siradiou DIALLO]; Rally for the Guinean People or RPG [Alpha CONDE]; Union for Progress of Guinea or UPG [Jean-Marie DORE, secretary-general]; Union for the New Republic or UNR [Mamadou Boye BA]

Guinea-Bissau

African Party for the Independence of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde or PAIGC [Malan Bacai SANHA]; Front for the Liberation and Independence of Guinea or FLING [Jose Katengul M. ENDES]; Guinea-Bissau Resistance-Ba Fata Movement or RGB-MB [Domingos FERNANDES Gomes]; Guinean Civic Forum or FCG [Antonieta Rosa GOMES]; International League for Ecological Protection or LIPE [Alhaje Bubacar DJALO, president]; National Union for Democracy and Progress or UNDP [Abubacer BALDE, secretary general]; Party for Democratic Convergence or PCD [Victor MANDINGA]; Social Renovation Party or PRS [Koumba YALLA]; Union for Change or UM [Jorge MANDINGA, president, Dr. Anne SAAD, secretary general]; United Social Democratic Party or PUSD [Victor Sau'de MARIA]

Guyana

Alliance for Guyana or AFG [Rupert ROOPNARINE]; Democratic Labor Movement or DLM [Paul TENNASSEE]; For a Good and Green Guyana or GGG [Hamilton GREEN]; Guyana Democratic Party or GDP [Asgar ALLY]; Guyana Labor Party or GLP [leader NA]; Guyanese Organization for Liberty and Democracy Party or GOLD [Anthony MEKDECI]; National Democratic Front or NDF [Joseph BACCHUS]; National Republican Party or NRP [Robert GANGADEEN]; People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Llewellyn JOHN]; People's National Congress or PNC [Hugh Desmond HOYTE]; People's Progressive Party or PPP [leader NA]; The United Force or TUF [Manzoor NADIR]; Working People's Alliance or WPA [leader NA]

Haiti

Alliance for the Liberation and Advancement of Haiti or ALAH [Reynold GEORGES]; Assembly of Progressive National Democrats or RDNP [Leslie MANIGAT]; Confederation for Democratic Unity or KID [Evans PAUL]; Democratic Consultation Group coalition or ESPACE [Evans PAUL] composed of the following parties: Confederation for Democratic Unity KONAKOM, PANPRA, Generation 2004, and Haiti Can or Ayiti Kapab; Generation 2004 [Claude ROUMAIN]; Haiti Can or Ayiti Kapab [Ernst VERDIEU]; Haitian Christian Democratic Party or PDCH [Fritz PIERRE]; Haitian Democratic Party or PADEMH [Clark PARENT]; Lavalas Family or FL [Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE]; Mobilization for National Development or MDN [Hubert DE RONCERAY]; Movement for National Reconstruction or MRN [Rene THEODORE]; Movement for the Installation of Democracy in Haiti or MIDH [Marc BAZIN]; Movement for the Organization of the Country or MOP [Gesner COMEAU and Jean MOLIERE]; National Alliance for Democracy and Progress [leader NA]; National Congress of Democratic Movements or KONAKOM [Victor BENOIT]; National Front for Change and Democracy or FNCD [Evans PAUL and Turneb DELPE]; National Progressive Revolutionary Party or PANPRA [Serge GILLES]; Open the Gate Party or PLB [Renaud BERNARDIN]; Struggling People's Organization or OPL [Gerard PIERRE-CHARLES]; Union of Patriotic Democrats or UPD [Rockefeller GUERRE]

Holy See (Vatican City)

none

Honduras

Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Arturo CORRALES Alvarez, president]; Democratic Unification Party or PUD [Gustavo GARCIA Espana, president]; Honduran National Party or PNH [leader NA]; Liberal Party or PL [Jorge REINA, president]; National Innovation and Unity Party-Social Democratic Party or PINU-SD [Olban VALLADARES, president]; National Party of Honduras or PN [Porfirio LOBO Sega, president]

Hong Kong

Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood [Frederick FUNG Kin-kee, chairman]; Citizens Party [Christine LOH Kung-wai, chairwoman]; Democratic Alliance for the Betterment of Hong Kong [Jasper TSANG Yok-sing, chairman]; Democratic Party [Martin LEE Chu-ming, chairman]; Frontier Party [Emily LAU Wai-hing, chairwoman]; Hong Kong Progressive Alliance [Ambrose LAU Hon-chuen]; Liberal Party [James TIEN Pei-chun, chairman] (Note: political blocs include: pro-democracy - Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood, Citizens Party, Democratic Party, Frontier Party; pro-Beijing - Democratic Alliance for the Betterment of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Progressive Alliance, Liberal Party)

Hungary

Alliance of Free Democrats or SZDSZ [Balint MAGYAR, chairman]; Christian Democratic People's Party or KDNP [Gyorgy GICZY, president]; Hungarian Civic Party or FIDESZ [Laszlo KOVER, chairman]; Hungarian Democratic Forum or MDF [Ibolya DAVID, chairman]; Hungarian Democratic People's Party or MDNP [Erzsebet PUSZTAI, chairman]; Hungarian Justice and Life Party or MIEP [Istvan CSURKA, chairman]; Hungarian Socialist Party or MSZP [Laszlo KOVACS, chairman]; Hungarian Workers' Party or MMP [Gyula THURMER, chairman]; Independent Smallholders or FKGP [Jozsef TORGYAN, president]

Iceland

Independence Party (conservative) or IP [David ODDSSON]; National Awakening (People's Revival Party) or PR [Johanna SIGURDARDOTTIR]; People's Alliance (left socialist) or PA [Margret FRIMANNSDOTTIR]; People's Movement (centrist) [leader NA]; Progressive Party (liberal) or PP [Halldor ASGRIMSSON]; Social Democratic Party or SDP [Sighvatur BJORGVINSSON]; Women's Party or WL [Kristin ASTGEIRSDOTTIR]

India

Akali Dal (representing Sikh religious community in Punjab) [Prakash Singh BADAL]; All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam or AIADMK [J. JAYALALITHA]; All India Forward Bloc or AIFB [Prem Dutta PALIWAL (chairman), Chitta BASU (general secretary)]; Asom Gana Parishad [Prafulla Kumar MAHANTA]; Bahujan Samaj Party or BSP [Kanshi RAM]; Bharatiya Janata Party or BJP [Kushabhau THAKRE, president, L. K. ADVANI, A. B. VAJPAYEE]; Bihar Peoples Party [Anand Mohan SINGH]; Biju Janata Dal or BJD [Navin PATNAIK]; Communist Party of India or CPI [Indrajit GUPTA]; Communist Party of India/Marxist or CPI/M [Harkishan Singh SURJEET]; Communist Party of India/Marxist-Leninist or CPI/ML [Vinod MISHRA]; Congress (I) Party [Sonia GANDHI, president]; Dravida Munnetra Kazagham or DMK (a regional party in Tamil Nadu) [M. KARUNANIDHI]; Indian National League [Suliaman SAIT]; Janata Dal (Ajit) [Ajit SINGH]; Janata Dal United Party or JDU [Sharad YADAV, president, I. K. GUJRAL]; Kerala Congress (Mani faction) [K. M. MANI]; Muslim League [G. M. BANATWALA]; National Conference or NC (a regional party in Jammu and Kashmir) [Farooq ABDULLAH]; Rashtriya Janata Dal or RJD [Laloo Prasad YADAV]; Revolutionary Socialist Party or RSP [Tridip CHOWDHURY]; Samajwadi Party or SP [Mulayam Singh YADAV, president]; Samata Party or SAP (formerly Janata Dal members) [George FERNANDES]; Shiv Sena or SHS [Bal THACKERAY]; Tamil Maanila Congress [G. K. MOOPANAR]; Telugu Desam (a regional party in Andhra Pradesh) [Chandrababu NAIDU]; Trinamool Congress [Mamata BANNERJEE]

Indonesia

Crescent Moon and Star Party or PBB [Yusril Ihza MAHENDRA, chairman]; Development Unity Party or PPP (federation of former Islamic parties) [Hamzah HAZ, chairman]; Golkar [Akbar TANSUNG, general chairman]; Indonesia Democracy Party or PDI (federation of former Nationalist and Christian Parties) [Budi HARDJONO, chairman]; Indonesia Democracy Party-Struggle or PDI-P [MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri, chairperson]; National Awakening Party or PKB [Abdurrahman WAHID]; National Mandate Party or PAN [Amien RAIS, chairman]

Iran

since President KHATAMI's election in May 1997, several political parties have been licensed; Executives of Construction; Followers of the Imam's Line and the Leader (conservative); Islamic Coalition Association [Habibollah ASQAR-OLADI]; Islamic Iran Solidarity Party; Islamic Partnership Front; Militant Clerics Association [Ayatollah Mahdavi KANI]; Second Khordad Front (pro-reform); Tehran Militant Clergy Association [Secretary General Ayatollah Mohammad EMAMI-KASHANI]

Iraq

Ba'th Party [SADDAM Husayn, central party leader]

Ireland

Communist Party of Ireland [Michael O'RIORDAN]; Democratic Left [Proinsias DE ROSSA]; Fianna Fail [Bertie AHERN]; Fine Gael [John BRUTON]; Green Alliance [Patricia HOWARD]; Labor Party [Ruairi QUINN]; Progressive Democrats [Mary HARNEY]; Sinn Fein [Gerry ADAMS]; The Workers' Party [Marion DONNELLY]

Israel

Balad [Azmi BISHARA]; Center Party [Yitzhak MORDECHAI]; Democratic Movement [Roman BRONFMAN]; Gesher [David LEVI]; Hadash [Muhammad BARAKA]; Labor Party [Ehud BARAK]; Likud Party [Ariel SHARON]; MERETZ [Yossi SARID]; Moledet [Rehavam ZEEVI]; National Democratic Alliance (Balad) [leader NA]; National Religious Party [Yitzhak LEVY]; National Union [Rehavam ZEEVI] (includes Herut, Tekuma, Yisre'el Beiteinu and Moledet); One Israel [Ehud BARAK] (includes Labor, Gesher, and Meimad); One Nation [Amir PERETZ]; Shas [Eliyahu YISHAI]; Shinui [Tommy LAPID]; Third Way [Avigdor KAHALANI]; Tzomet [Rafael EITAN]; United Arab List [Abd al-Malik DAHAMSHAH]; United Torah Judaism [Meir PORUSH]; Yisra'el Ba'Aliya [Natan SHARANSKY]; Yisra'el Beiteinu [Avigdor LIEBERMAN]

Italy

Bonino List or LB (used to be the Autonomous List, a group of minor parties) [Emma BONINO]; Center-Left Coalition (used to be the Olive Tree) [Massimo D'ALEMA] - Democrats, DS, FdV, PdCI, PPI, RI, UDEUR; Christian Democratic Center or CCD [Pier Ferdinando CASINI]; Christian Democratic Union or CDU [Rocco BUTTIGLIONE]; Communist Renewal or RC [Fausto BERTINOTTI]; Democratic Party [Arturo PARISI]; Democratic Party of the Left or DS [Walter VELTRONI]; Forza Italia or FI [Silvio BERLUSCONI]; Freedom Alliance (a center-right coalition) [leader Silvio BERLUSCONI] - FI, AN, CCD; Green Federation or FdV [Grazia FRANCESCATO]; Italian Communist Party or PdCI [Armando COSSUTA]; Italian Democratic Socialists or SDI [Enrico BOSSELLI]; Italian Popular Party or PPI [Pierluigi CASTAGNETTI]; Italian Renewal or RI [Lamberto DINI]; Italian Social Movement-Tricolored Flame or MSI-FT [Pino RAUTI]; National Alliance or AN [Gianfranco FINI]; Northern League-Padania or NL-Padania [Umberto BOSSI]; Radical Party (formerly Panella Reformers) [Marco PANELLA]; Republican Party or PR [Giorgio LA MALFA]; Southern Tyrols People's Party or SVP (German speakers) [Siegfried BRUGGER]; Union of Democrats for Europe or UDEUR [Clemente MASTELLA]; Union for the Republic or UPR [Francesco COSSIGA]

Jamaica

Jamaica Labor Party or JLP [Edward SEAGA]; National Democratic Movement or NDM [Bruce GOLDING]; People's National Party or PNP [P. J. PATTERSON]

Japan

Democratic Party of Japan or DPJ [Yukio HATOYAMA, leader, Tsutomu HATA, secretary general]; Japan Communist Party or JCP [Tetsuzo FUWA, chairman, Kazuo SHII, secretary general]; Komeito [Takenori KANZAKI, president, Tetsuzo FUYUSHIBA, secretary general]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Yoshiro MORI, president, Hiromu NONAKA, secretary general]; Liberal Party [Ichiro OZAWA, president, Hirohisa FUJII, secretary general]; Reform Club [Tatsuo OZAWA, leader, Katsuyuki ISHIDA, secretary general]; Social Democratic Party or SDP [Takako DOI, chairperson, Sadao FUCHIGAMI, secretary general] (Note: subsequent to the last legislative elections, the New Frontier Party or NFP and the Sun Party disbanded; in late 1997, the LP was formed by former NFP members; the DPJ was formed by former members of the SDP and Sakigake and, in April 1998, was joined by three additional parties which had formed after the NFP disbanded; New Peace Party and Komei merged to form Komeito in November 1998)

Jersey

none; all independents

Jordan

Al-Ahrar (Freedom) Party [Dr. Ahmad ZO'BI, secretary general]; Arab Ba'th Progressive Party [Mahmoud al-MA'AYTAH, secretary general]; Arab Islamic Democratic Party (Doa'a) [Yousif ABU BAKR, secretary general]; Arab Jordanian Ansar Party [Muhammad MAJALI, secretary general]; Arab Land Party [Dr. Muhammad al-'ORAN, secretary general]; Democratic Party of the Left [Musa MA'AITAH, secretary general]; Islamic Action Front [Abd-al-Latif ARABIYAT, secretary general]; Jordanian Arab Constitutional Front Party [Milhem TELL, secretary general]; Jordanian Arab New Dawn Party [leader NA]; Jordanian Ba'th Arab Socialist Party [Tayseer al-HOMSI, secretary general]; Jordanian Communist Party [Ya'acoub ZAYADIN, secretary general]; Jordanian Democratic Popular Unity Party [Sa'eed MUSTAPHA, secretary general]; Jordanian Labor Party [Muhammad KHATAYIBAH, secretary general]; Jordanian Peace Party [Dr. Shaher KHREIS, secretary general]; Jordanian People's Democratic Party or HASHD [Salem NAHHAS, secretary general]; Al-Mustaqbal (Future) Party [Suleiman 'ARAR, secretary general]; National Action Party or Haqq [Muhammad ZO'BI, secretary general]; National Constitutional Party [Abdul Hadi MAJALI, secretary general]; National Democratic Public Movement Party [Muhammad al-'AMER, secretary general]; Progressive Party [Na'el BARAKAT, secretary general]; Al-Umma (Nation) Party [Ahmad HNEIDI, secretary general]; The Generations [Hamad al-KHALAYLA, chairman]

Kazakhstan

Agrarian Party [Romin MADENOV]; Alash [Soverkazhy AKATAYEV]; AZAMAT Movement [Petr SVOIK, Murat AUEZOV, and Galym ABILSIITOV, cochairmen]; Civic Party [Azat PERUASHEV, first secretary]; Communist Party or KPK [Serikbolsyn ABDILDIN, first secretary]; Forum of Democratic Forces [leader NA]; Labor and Workers Movement [Madel ISMAILOV, chairman]; Orleu Movement [Seidakhmet KUTTYKADAM]; Otan [Sergei TERESCHENKO, chairman]; Pensioners Movement or Pokoleniye [Irina SAVOSTINA, chairwoman]; People's Congress of Kazakhstan or NKK [Olzhas SULEIMENOV, chairman]; People's Cooperative Party [Umirzak SARSENOV]; Republican People's Party of Kazakhstan [Akezhan KAZHEGELDIN]

Kenya

Democratic Party of Kenya or DP [Mwai KIBAKI]; Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-Asili or FORD-A [Martin SHIKUKU, chairman]; Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-Kenya or FORD-K [Michael Kijana WAMALWA]; Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-People or FORD-People [Raymond MATIBA]; Kenya African National Union or KANU [President Daniel Toroitich arap MOI] - the governing party; National Development Party or NDP [Raila ODINGA, president, Dr. Charles MARANGA, secretary general]; SAFINA [Farah MAALIM, chairman, Mghanga MWANDAWIRO, secretary general]; Social Democratic Party or SDP [Anyang N'YANGO, secretary general]

Kiribati

Liberal Party [Tewareka TENTOA]; Maneaban Te Mauri Party [Teburoro TITO]; National Progressive Party [Teatao TEANNAKI]; New Movement Party [leader NA] (Note: there is no tradition of formally organized political parties in Kiribati; they more closely resemble factions or interest groups because they have no party headquarters, formal platforms, or party structures)

Korea, North

Chondoist Chongu Party [YU Mi-yong, chairwoman]; Korean Social Democratic Party [KIM Pyong-sik, chairman]; major party - Korean Workers' Party or KWP [KIM Chong-il, General Secretary]

Korea, South

Grand National Party or GNP [YI Hoe-chang, president]; Millennium Democratic Party or MDP [KIM Dae-jung, president]; United Liberal Democrats or ULD [KIM Chong-p'il, honorary chairman] (Note: subsequent to the legislative election of April 1996 the following parties disbanded - New Korea Party or NKP and Democratic Party or DP; on 20 January 2000, the National Congress for New Politics or NCNP was renamed the Millennium Democratic Party or MDP)

Kuwait

none

Kyrgyzstan

Agrarian Party [leader NA]; Agrarian Party of Kyrgyzstan [A. ALIYEV]; Banner National Revival Party or ASABA [Chaprashty BAZARBAY]; Communist Party of Kyrgyzstan or PKK [Absamat MASALIYEV, chairman]; Democratic Movement of Kyrgyzstan or DDK [Jypar JEKSHEYEV, chairman]; Dignity Party [Feliks KULOV]; Fatherland or Alta Mekel Party [Omurbek TEKEBAYEV]; Justice Party [Chingiz AYTMATOV]; Kyrgyzstan Erkin Party (Democratic Movement of Free Kyrgyzstan) or ErK [Tursunbay Bakir UULU]; Movement for the People's Salvation [Djumgalbek AMAMBAYEV]; Mutual Help Movement or Ashar [Zhumagazy USUPOV]; National Unity Democratic Movement or DDNE [Yury RAZGULYAYEV]; Peasant Party [leader NA]; Republican Popular Party of Kyrgyzstan [J. SHARSHENALIYEV]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [J. IBRAMOV]

Laos

Lao People's Revolutionary Party or LPRP [KHAMTAI Siphandon, party president]; other parties proscribed

Latvia

Anticommunist Union or PA [P. MUCENIEKS]; Association of Latvian Social Democrats [Juris BOJARS, Janis ADAMSONS]; Christian Democrat Union or LKDS [Talavs JUNDZIS]; Christian People's Party or KTP (formerly People's Front of Latvia or LTF) [Uldis AUGSTKALNS]; Democratic Party "Saimnieks" or DPS [Ziedonis CEVERS, chairman]; For Fatherland and Freedom or TB [Maris GRINBLATS], merged with LNNK; Green Party or LZP [Olegs BATAREVSK]; Latvian Liberal Party or LLP [J. DANOSS]; Latvian National Conservative Party or LNNK [Andrejs KRASTINS]; Latvian National Democratic Party or LNDP [A. MALINS]; Latvian Social-Democratic Workers Party (Social Democrats) or LSDSP [Janis BOJARS]; Latvian Socialist Party or LSP [Sergejs DIAMANIS]; Latvian Unity Party or LVP [Alberis KAULS]; Latvia's Way or LC [Andrei PANTELEJEVS]; National Harmony Party or TSP [Janis JURKANS]; New Party [Raimonds PAULS]; "Our Land" or MZ [M. DAMBEKALNE]; Party for the Defense of Latvia's Defrauded People [leader NA]; Party of Russian Citizens or LKPP [V. SOROCHIN, V. IVANOV]; Political Association of the Underprivileged or MPA [B. PELSE, V. DIMANTS, J. KALNINS]; Political Union of Economists or TPA [Edvins KIDE]; People's Party [Andris SKELE]

Lebanon

political party activity is organized along largely sectarian lines; numerous political groupings exist, consisting of individual political figures and followers motivated by religious, clan, and economic considerations

Lesotho

Basotho National Party or BNP [Maj. Gen. Justine Metsing LEKHANYA]; Basotholand Congress Party or BCP [Molapo QHOBELA, leader (currently suspended), Ntsukunyane MPHANYA, secretary general]; Lesotho Congress for Democracy or LCD [Dr. Pakalitha MOSISILI, leader; Shakhane MOKHEHLE, secretary general] - the governing party; United Democratic Party or UDP [Charles MOFELI]; Marematlou Freedom Party or MFP and Setlamo Alliance [Vincent MALEBO]; National Progressive Party or NPP [Chief Peete Nkoebe PEETE]; Sefate Democratic Party or SDP [Bofihla NKUEBE]

Liberia

All Liberia Coalition Party or ALCOP [Lusinee KAMARA]; Liberian Action Party or LAP [Cletus WOTORSON]; Liberian National Union or LINU [Henry MONIBA, chairman]; Liberian People's Party or LPP [Togba-Nah TIPOTEH, chairman]; National Democratic Party of Liberia or NDPL [Isaac DAKINAH]; National Patriotic Party or NPP [Charles Ghankay TAYLOR] - governing party; People's Progressive Party or PPP [Chea CHEAPOO, chairman]; Reformation Alliance Party or RAP [Henry Boimah FAHNBULLEH, chairman]; True Whig Party or TWP [Rudolph SHERMAN, chairman]; United People's Party or UPP [Gabriel Baccus MATTHEWS, chairman]; Unity Party or UP [Charles Clarke]

Libya

none

Liechtenstein

Fatherland Union or VU [Dr. Oswald KRANZ]; Progressive Citizens' Party or FBPL [Norbert SEEGER]; The Free List or FL [Christel HILTI, Hansjorg HILTI, Helen MARXER, Hugo RISCH, Margrit WILLE]

Lithuania

Christian Democratic Party or LKDP [Algirdas SAUDARGAS, chairman]; Democratic Labor Party of Lithuania or LDDP [Ceslovas JURSENAS, chairman]; Democratic Party or DP [Lydie WURTH-POLFER, president]; Homeland Union/Conservative Party or TS [Vytautas LANDSBERGIS, chairman]; Lithuanian Center Union or LCS [Romualdas OZOLAS, chairman]; Lithuanian Farmer's Party or LUP (previously Farmers' Union) [Albinas VAIZMUZIS, chairman]; Lithuanian Nationalist Union or LTS [Rimantas SMETONA, chairman]; Lithuanian Polish Union or LLS [Rsztardas MACIEKIANIEC, chairman]; Lithuanian Social Democratic Party or LSDP [Aloyzas SAKALAS, chairman]

Luxembourg

Action Committee for Democracy and Pension Rights or ADR [Robert MEHLEN]; Christian Social People's Party or CSV [Erna HENNICOT-SCHOEPGES]; Democratic Party or DP [Lydie POLFER]; Green Party [Jean HUSS]; Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party or LSAP [Jean ASSELBORN]; Marxist and Reformed Communist Party DEI LENK (the Left) [Andre HOFFMAN]; other minor parties

Macau

the following is a listing of those associations that participated in the last legislative elections: Associacao de Novo Macau Democratico or ANMD [leader NA]; Associacao Promotora para a Economia de Macau or APPEM [leader NA]; Convergencia para o Desenvolvimento or CODEM [leader NA]; Uniao Geral para o Desenvolvimento de Macau or UDM [leader NA]; Uniao para o Desenvolvimento or UPD [leader NA]; Uniao Promotora para o Progresso or UNIPRO [leader NA] (Note: there are no formal political parties, but civic associations are used instead)

Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of

Alliance of Romas [leader NA]; Alliance of Communists [leader NA]; Civic Liberal Party [leader NA]; Communist Party [leader NA]; Democratic Alternative or DA [Vasil TUPURKOVSKI, president]; Democratic Party for Albanians or DPA [Arben XHAFERI, president]; Democratic Party of Macedonia or DPM [Tomislav STOJANOVSK-BOMBAJ]; Democratic Party of Serbs or DPSM [Dragisa MILETIC]; Democratic Party of Turks or DPTM [Erdogan SARAC]; Democratic Progressive Party of Romas [leader NA]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization - Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity or VMRO-DPMNE [Ljubcho GEORGIEVSKI, president]; Labor Party or LP [Krste JANKOVSKI]; League of Democracy [leader NA]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Risto PENOV]; Movement for All Macedonian Action or MAAK [Straso ANGELOVSKI]; Party for Democratic Action-True Path [leader NA]; Party for Democratic Prosperity or PDP [Abdurahman HALITI, president]; Party for the Complete Emancipation of Romas or PCER [Bajram BERAT]; Party of Pensioners of Macedonia [leader NA]; Republican Party for National Unity [leader NA]; Social Christian Party of Macedonia [leader NA]; Social-Democratic Alliance of Macedonia or SDSM (former Communist Party) [Branko CRVENKOVSKI, president]; Social Democratic Party of Macedonia or SDPM [leader NA]; Socialist Party of Macedonia or SP [Ljubisav IVANOV, president]

Madagascar

Action, Truth, Development, and Harmony or AFFA [Professor Albert ZAFY]; Association for the Rebirth of Madagascar or AREMA [Pierrot RAJAONARIVELO]; Congress Party for Malagasy Independence or AKFM/Fanavaozana [Pastor Richard ANDRIAMANJATO]; Economic Liberalism and Democratic Action for National Recovery or LEADER/Fanilo [Herizo RAZAFIMAHALEO]; Fihaonana Rally or Fihaonana [Guy RAZANAMASY]; Group of Reflection and Action for the Development of Madagascar or GRAD/Iloafo [Tovonanahary RABETSITONTA]; Judged by Your Work or AVI [Norbert RATSIRAHONANA]; Movement for the Progress of Madagascar or MFM [Manandafy RAKOTONIRINA]; National Union for Development and Democracy or UNDD; Renewal of the Social Democratic Party or RPSD [Evariste MARSON]

Malawi

Alliance for Democracy or AFORD [Chakufwa CHIHANA, president]; Malawi Congress Party or MCP [Gwanda CHAKUAMBA, president, John TEMBO, vice president]; Malawi Democratic Party or MDP [Kampelo KALUA, president]; Social Democratic Party or SDP [Eston KAKHOME, president]; United Democratic Front or UDF [Bakili MULUZI] - governing party

Malaysia

State Reform Party or STAR [PATAV Rubis]; Democratic Action Party or DAP [LIM Kit Siang]; Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia [LIM Keng Yaik]; Liberal Democratic Party [leader NA]; Malaysian Chinese Association or MCA [LING Liong Sik]; Malaysian Indian Congress or MIC [S. Samy VELLU]; National Front or NF [MAHATHIR bin Mohamad] (a coalition of 14 political parties, dominated by the UMNO, and including the UPKO, SAPP, and the Liberal Democratic Party); National Justice Party or NJP [WAN AZIZAH Wan Ismail]; Parti Akar [Datuk PANDIKAR Amin Mulia]; Parti Bansa Dayak Sarawak or PBDS [Datuk Leo MOGGIE]; Parti Bersekutu [HARRIS Salleh]; Parti Islam SeMalaysia or PAS [Ustaz Fadzil Mohamed NOOR]; Party Pesaka Bumiputra Bersatu or PBB [Datuk Patinggi Haji Abdul TAIB Mahmud]; Sabah People's Progressive Party or SAPP [YONG Teck Lee]; Sabah People's United Party (Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sabah) or PBRS [Datuk Joseph KURUP]; Sarawak National Party or SNAP [Datuk Amar James WONG]; Sarawak United People's Party or SUPP [Datuk Dr. George CHAN Hong Nam]; United Kadazan People's Organization or UPKO (formerly Parti Demokratik Sabah) [Bernard DOMPOK]; United Malays National Organization or UMNO [OSU Sukam]; United Sabah Party (main opposition party) (Parti Bersatu Sabah) or PBS [Dr. Joseph PAIRIN Kitingan] (Note: subsequent to the election, the following parties were dissolved - Spirit of '46 or Semangat '46 [Tengku Tan Sri RAZALEIGH, president] and Sabah United Party (Parti Bersatu Sabah) or PBS [Datuk Seri Joseph PAIRIN Kitingan])

Maldives

although political parties are not banned, none exist

Mali

Alliance for Democracy or ADEMA [Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA, party chairman]; Block of Alternative for the Renewal of Africa or BARA [Yoro DIAKITE]; Democratic and Social Convention or CDS [Mamadou Bakary SANGARE, chairman]; Movement for the Independence, Renaissance and Integration of Africa or MIRIA [Mohamed Lamine TRAORE, Mouhamedou DICKO]; National Congress for Democratic Initiative or CNID [Mountaga TALL, chairman]; Party for Democracy and Progress or PDP [Me Idrissa TRAORE]; Party for National Renewal or PARENA [Yoro DIAKITE, chairman; Tiebile DRAME, secretary general]; Rally for Democracy and Labor or RDT [Ali GNANGADO]; Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Almamy SYLLA, chairman]; Sudanese Union/African Democratic Rally or US/RDA [Mamadou Bamou TOURE, secretary general]; Union of Democratic Forces for Progress or UFDP [Youssouf TOURE, secretary general]; Union for Democracy and Development or UDD [Moussa Balla COULIBALY]

Malta

Alternativa Demokratika/Alliance for Social Justice or AD [Harry VASSALLO]; Malta Labor Party or MLP [Alfred SANT]; Nationalist Party or PN [Edward FENECH ADAMI]

Man, Isle of

there is no party system; members sit as independents

Marshall Islands

traditionally there have been no formally organized political parties; what has existed more closely resembles factions or interest groups because they do not have party headquarters, formal platforms, or party structures; the following two "groupings" have competed in legislative balloting in recent years - Kabua Party [Imata KABUA] and United Democratic Party or UDP [Litokwa TOMLING]

Martinique

Combat Worker [Gerard BEAUJOUR]; Martinique Communist Party or PCM [Armand NICOLAS]; Martinique Forces [Maurice LAOUCHEZ]; Martinique Independence Movement or MIM [Alfred MARIE-JEANNE]; Martinique Patriots or PM [leader NA]; Martinique Progressive Party or PPM [Camille DARSIERES]; Martinique Socialist Party or PMS [Ernest WAN-AJOUHU]; Movement for a Liberated Martinique [Philippe PETIT]; National Council of Popular Committees [Robert SAE]; Rally for Democratic Martinique [Felix HILAIRE-FORTUNE]; Rally for the Republic or RPR [Michel CHARLONE]; Republican Party or PR [Jean BAILLY]; Socialist Federation of Martinique or FSM [Jean CRUSOL]; Union for French Democracy or UDF [Jean MAREN]; Union for the Renewal of Ste. Marie [Guy LORDINOT]

Mauritania

Action for Change or AC [Messoud Ould BOULKHEIR]; Assembly for Democracy and Unity or RDU [Ahmed Ould SIDI BABA]; Democratic and Social Republican Party or PRDS (ruling party) [President Col. Maaouya Ould Sid Ahmed TAYA]; National Avant-Garde Party or PAN [Khattry Ould JIDDOU]; Popular Social and Democratic Union or UPSD [Mohamed Mahmoud Ould MAH]; Union of Democratic Forces-New Era or UFD/NE [Ahmed Ould DADDAH] (Note: parties legalized by constitution passed 12 July 1991, however, politics continue to be tribally based)

Mauritius

Hizbullah [Cehl Mohamed FAKEEMEEAH]; Mauritian Labor Party or MLP [Navinchandra RAMGOOLAM] - governing party; Mauritian Militant Movement or MMM [Paul BERENGER]; Mauritian Militant Renaissance or MMR [Dr. Paramhansa NABABSING]; Mauritian Social Democrat Party or PMSD [Xavier-Luc DUVAL]; Militant Socialist Movement or MSM [Sir Anerood JUGNAUTH]; Organization of the People of Rodrigues or OPR [Louis Serge CLAIR]; Rodrigues Movement [Nicholas Von MALLY]

Mayotte

Association for French Mayotte or Association Pour Mayotte Francaise [Didier BEOUTIS]; Democratic Front or FD [Youssouf MOUSSA]; Mahoran Popular Movement or MPM [Younoussa BAMANA]; Mahoran Rally for the Republic or RPR [Soibahadine Ibrahim RAMADAN]; Socialist Party or PS (local branch of French Parti Socialiste) [Hariti IBRAHIM]; Union for French Democracy or UDF [Henri JEAN-BAPTISTE]

Mexico

Convergence for Democracy or CD [Dante DELGADO Ranauro]; Institutional Revolutionary Party or PRI [Dulce Maria SAURI Riancho]; Mexican Green Ecological Party or PVEM [Jorge GONZALEZ Torres]; National Action Party or PAN [Luis Felipe BRAVO Mena]; Party of the Democratic Center or PCD [Manuel CAMACHO Solis]; Party of the Democratic Revolution or PRD [Amalia GARCIA Medina]; Party of the Mexican Revolution or PARM [leader NA]; Party of the Nationalist Society or PSN [Gustavo RIOJAIS Santana]; Social Alliance Party or PAS [Jose Antonio CALDERON Cardoso]; Social Democratic Party or PDS [Gilberto RINCON Gallardo]; Workers Party or PT [Alberto ANAYA Gutierrez]

Micronesia, Federated States of

no formal parties

Moldova

Bloc for a Democratic and Prosperous Moldova or PMDP [Dumitru DIACOV]; Christian Democratic Popular Front or FPCD [Iurie ROSCA, chairman]; Communist Party or PCM [Vladimir VORONIN, first chairman]; Democratic Convention of Moldova or CDM [Mircea SNEGUR, chairman]; Party of Democratic Forces or PFD [Valeriu MATEI, chairman]

Monaco

National and Democratic Union or UND [Jean-Louis CAMPORA]

Mongolia

Democratic Union Coalition or DUC (includes the MNDP and the MSDP); Independence Party [leader NA]; Mongolian Conservative Party or MCP [JARGALSAIHAN]; Mongolian Democratic New Socialist Party or MDNSP [B. ERDENEBAT, chairman]; Mongolian Democratic Renaissance Party or MDRP [BYAMBASUREN, chairman]; Mongolian National Democratic Party or MNDP [R. AMARJARGAL, chairman; B. DELGERMAA, general secretary]; Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party or MPRP [N. ENKHBAYAR, chairman; L. ENEBISH, general secretary]; Mongolian Republican Party or MRP [B. JARGALSAIHAN]; Mongolian Social Democratic Party or MSDP [Radnaasumbereliyn GONCHIGDORJ, chairman; N. ALTANKHUYAG, general secretary]; Mongolian United Heritage Party or UHP [B. JAMTSAI] (includes the United Party of Herdsman and Farmers, Independence Party, Traditional United Conservative Party, and Mongolian United Private Property Owners Party); Mongolian United Private Property Owners Party [leader NA]); United Party of Herdsman and Farmers [leader NA]; Traditional United Conservative Party [leader NA]; Workers' Party [leader NA]

Montserrat

Movement for National Reconstruction or MNR [Percival Austin BRAMBLE]; National Development Party or NDP [leader NA]; National Progressive Party or NPP [Reuben T. MEADE]; People's Progressive Alliance or PPA [Bertrand OSBORNE]

Morocco

Action Party or PA [Ahmed ABAKIL]; Constitutional Union or UC [Abdellatif SEMLALI]; Democratic Forces Front or FFD [Thami KHIARI]; Democratic Socialist Party or PSD [Issa al-OUARDIGHI]; Democratic Party for Independence or PDI [Thami el-OUAZZANI, Said BOUACHRINE]; Istiqlal Party or IP [Abbas EL-FASSI]; Labor Party or UT [leader NA]; National Democratic Party or PND [Mohamed Arsalane EL-JADIDI]; National Popular Movement or MNP [Mahjoubi AHARDANE]; National Rally of Independents or RNI [Ahmed OSMAN]; Organization of Democratic and Popular Action or OADP [Mohamed BENSAID]; Party of Progress and Socialism or PPS [Moulay Ismail al ALAOUI]; Popular Constitutional and Democratic Movement or MPCD [Dr. Abdelkarim al-KHATIB]; Popular Movement or MP [Mohamed LAENSER]; Social Democratic Movement or MDS [Mahmoud ARCHANE]; Socialist Union of Popular Forces or USFP [Abderrahmane YOUSSOUFI]

Mozambique

Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (Frente de Liberatacao de Mocambique) or Frelimo [Joaquim Alberto CHISSANO, chairman]; Mozambique National Resistance - Electoral Union (Resistencia Nacional Mocambicana - Uniao Eleitoral) or Renamo-UE [Afonso DHLAKAMA, president]

Myanmar

National League for Democracy or NLD [AUNG SHWE, chairman, AUNG SAN SUU KYI, general secretary]; National Unity Party or NUP (proregime) [THA KYAW]; Union Solidarity and Development Association or USDA (proregime, a social and political organization) [THAN AUNG, general secretary]; and eight minor legal parties

Namibia

Congress of Democrats or COD [Ben ULENGA]; Democratic Turnhalle Alliance of Namibia or DTA [Katuutire KAURA, president]; Monitor Action Group or MAG [Kosie PRETORIUS]; South West Africa People's Organization or SWAPO [Sam NUJOMA]; United Democratic Front or UDF [Justus GAROEB]

Nauru

loose multiparty system; Democratic Party [Kennan ADEANG]; Nauru Party (informal) [Bernard DOWIYOGO]

Nepal

Communist Party of Nepal/United Marxist-Leninist or CPN/UML [Madhav Kumar NEPAL, general secretary]; Marxist-Leninist [Sahana PRADHAM, chairman, Bam Dev GAUTAM, general secretary]; National Democratic Party or NDP (also called Rastriya Prajantra Party or RPP) [Surya Bahadur THAPA]; Nepal Sadbhavana (Goodwill) Party or NSP [Gajendra Narayan SINGH, president]; Nepal Workers and Peasants Party or NWPP [Narayan Man BIJUKCHHE, party chair]; Nepali Congress or NC [Girija Prasad KOIRALA, party president, Sushil KOIRALA, general secretary]; Rastriya Jana Morcha [Chitra Bahadur K. C., chairman]; Samyukta Janmorcha Nepal [Lila Mani POKHAREL, general secretary]

Netherlands

Christian Democratic Appeal or CDA [Jaap de Hoop SCHEFFER]; Democrats '66 or D'66 [Tom KOK]; Labor Party or PvdA [Wim KOK]; People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (Liberal) or VVD [Hans F. DIJKSTAL]; a host of minor parties

Netherlands Antilles

Antillean Restructuring Party or PAR [Miguel POURIER]; C 93 [Stanley BROWN]; Democratic Party of Bonaire or PDB [Jopi ABRAHAM]; Democratic Party of Curacao or DP [Ephraim JONCKHEER]; Democratic Party of Sint Eustatius or DP-St. E [Julian WOODLEY]; Democratic Party of Sint Maarten or DP-St. M [Sarah WESTCOTT-WILLIAMS]; Foundation Energetic Management Anti-Narcotics or FAME [Eric LODEWIJKS]; Labor Party People's Crusade or PLKP [Errol COVA]; National People's Party or PNP [Suzy ROMER]; New Antilles Movement or MAN [Domenico Felip Don MARTINA]; Nos Patria [Chin BEHILIA]; Patriotic Movement of Sint Maarten or SPA [William MARLIN]; Patriotic Union of Bonaire or UPB [Rudy ELLIS]; People's Party or PAPU [Richard HODI]; Pro Curacao Party or PPK [Winston LOURENS]; Saba Democratic Labor Movement [Steve HASSELL]; Saba Unity Party [Carmen SIMMONDS]; St. Eustatius Alliance or SEA [Ingrid WHITFIELD]; Serious Alternative People's Party or SAPP [Julian ROLLOCKS]; Social Action Cause or KAS [Benny DEMEI]; Socialist Independent or SI [George HUECK]; Windward Islands People's Movement or WIPM [Ray HASSELL]; Workers' Liberation Front or FOL [Wilson GODETT, Jr.] (Note: political parties are indigenous to each island)

New Caledonia

Alliance pour la Caledonie [Didier LEROUX]; Developper Ensemble pour Construire l'Avenir or DEPCA [Robert FROUIN]; Federation des Comites de Coordination des Independantistes or FCCI [Raphael MAPOU]; Front Uni de Liberation Kanak or FULK [Ernest UNE]; Groupe de l'Alliance Multiraciale or GAM [Dany DALMAYRAE]; Independance et Progres [Alphonse PUJAPUJANE]; Kanak Socialist Front for National Liberation or FLNKS [Rock WAMYTAN] (includes PALIKA, UNI, UC, UPM); La Caledonie Autrement [Denis MILLIARD]; Loyalty Islands Development Front or FDIL [Cono HAMU]; National Front or FN [Guy GEORGE]; Parti de Liberation Kanak or PALIKA [Charles WASHETINE]; Rally for Caledonia in the Republic or RPCR [Jacques LAFLEUR]; Renouveau [Thierry VALET]; Socialist Kanak Liberation or LKS [Nidoish NAISSELINE]; Union Caledonienne or UC [Bernard LEPEU]; Union Nationale pour l'Independance or UNI [Paul NEAOUTYINE]; Union Progressiste Melanesienne or UPM [Andre GOPEA]

New Zealand

ACT, New Zealand [Richard PREBBLE]; Alliance (a coalition of the New Labor Party, Democratic Party, New Zealand Liberal Party, and Mana Motuhake) [leader NA]; Christian Coalition (a coalition of the Christian Democrats and Christian Heritage Party) [Rev. Graham CAPILL]; Conservative Party (formerly Right of Centre Party) [Trevor ROGERS]; Democratic Party [John WRIGHT]; Green Party [Jeanette FITZSIMONS and Rod DONALD]; Mana Motuhake [Sandra LEE]; Mauri Pacific Party (composed of members who broke away from the NZFP) [Tau HENARE]; National Party or NP [Jenny SHIPLEY]; New Labor Party [Jim ANDERTON]; New Zealand First Party or NZFP [Winston PETERS]; New Zealand Labor Party or NZLP [Helen CLARK]; New Zealand Liberal Party [Frank GROVER]; United New Zealand or UNZ [Peter DUNNE]

Nicaragua

Central American Integrationist Party or PIAC [leader NA]; Central American Unionist Party or PUCA [Blanca ROJAS Echaverry]; Conservative Action Movement or MAC [Hernaldo ZUNIGA]; Conservative National Party or PNC [Adolfo CALERO, Noel VIDAURRE]; Conservative Party of Nicaragua or PCN [Dr. Fernando AGUERO Rocha]; Independent Liberal Party or PLI [Virgilio GODOY]; Independent Liberal Party for National Unity or PLIUN [Carlos GUERRA Gallardo]; Liberal Constitutionalist Party or PLC [Jose RIZO Castellon]; Movement for Revolutionary Unity or MUR [leader NA]; National Democratic Party or PND [Alfredo CESAR Aguirre]; National Project or PRONAL [Antonio LACAYO Oyanguren]; Nationalist Liberal Party or PLN [Enrique SANCHEZ Herdocia]; Neoliberal Party or PALI [Adolfo GARCIA Esquivel]; Nicaraguan Democratic Movement or MDN [Alfredo GUZMAN]; Nicaraguan Party of the Christian Road or PCCN [Guillermo OSORNO, Roberto RODRIGUEZ]; Nicaraguan Resistance Party or PRN [Fabio GADEA]; Sandinista National Liberation Front or FSLN [Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra]; Sandinista Renovation Movement or MRS [Sergio RAMIREZ]; Social Christian Party or PSC [Erick RAMIREZ]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Adolfo JARQUIN]; Unity Alliance or AU [Alejandro SERRANO]; UNO-96 Alliance [Alfredo CESAR Aguirre] (Note: political blocs include: left - FSLN; center left - MRS, PSD, PSC, MUR, PIAC, AU, PCN, PND, PUCA, UNO-96 Alliance, and MDN; center right - PALI, PRN, PLI, PRONAL, and MAC; right - PCCN, PLC, PLIUN, PNC, and PLN)

Niger

Democratic Rally of the People-Jama'a or RDP-Jama'a [Hamid ALGABID]; Democratic and Social Convention-Rahama or CDS-Rahama [Mahamane OUSMANE]; Movement for Development and Progress-Alkwali or MDP-Alkwali [Mai Manga BOUCAR, chairman]; National Movement for a Developing Society-Nassara or MNSD-Nassara [Tandja MAMADOU, chairman]; National Union of Independents for Democratic Renewal or UNIRD [Moutari MOUSSA]; Nigerien Alliance for Democracy and Social Progress-Zaman Lahiya or ANDPS-Zaman Lahiya [Moumouni Adamou DJERMAKOYE]; Nigerien Democratic Front-Mutunci or FDN-Mutunci [Ide OUMAROU]; Nigerien Party for Democracy and Socialism-Tarayya or PNDS-Tarayya [Mahamadou ISSOUFOU]; Nigerien Social Democrat Party-Alheri or PSDN-Alheri [Malam Adji WAZIRI]; Party for People's Dignity-Daraja or PDP-Daraja [Ali TALBA, chairman]; Union of Democratic Patriots and Progressives-Chamoua or UPDP-Chamoua [Professor Andre' SALIFOU, chairman]; Union for Democracy and Social Progress-Amana or UDPS-Amana [Mohamed ABDULLAHI]; Union of Popular Forces for Democracy and Progress-Sawaba or UFPDP-Sawaba [Djibo BAKARY]; Workers' Movement Party-Albarka or PMT-Albarka [Omar Idi ANGO]

Nigeria

All People's Party or APP [Alhaji Yusuf ALI]; Alliance for Democracy or AD [Yusuf MAMMAN]; People's Democratic Party or PDP [Barnabas GEMADE]

Niue

Niue People's Action Party or NPP [Young VIVIAN]

Norfolk Island

none

Northern Mariana Islands

Democratic Party [chairman (currently vacant)]; Republican Party [Benigno R. FITIAL]

Norway

Center Party [Johan J. JAKOBSEN]; Christian People's Party [Valgerd HAUGLAND]; Conservative Party [Jan PETERSEN]; Labor Party [Thorbjorn JAGLAND]; Liberal Party [Lars SPONHEIM]; Norwegian Communist Party [Kare Andre NILSEN]; Progress Party [Carl I. HAGEN]; Red Electoral Alliance [Erling FOLKVORD]; Socialist Left Party [Kristin HALVORSEN]

Oman

none

Pakistan

(Note: Gen. Pervez MUSHARRAF dissolved Parliament following the military takeover of 12 October 1999, however, political parties have been allowed to operate; Awami National Party or ANP [Wali KHAN]; Balochistan National Movement/Hayee Group or BNM/H [Dr. HAYEE Baluch]; Balochistan National Movement/Mengal Group or BNM/M [Sardar Akhtar MENGAL]; Baluch National Party or BNP [leader NA]; Jamhoori Watan Party or JWP [Akbar Khan BUGTI]; Jamiat-al-Hadith or JAH [leader NA]; Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam, Fazlur Rehman faction or JUI/F; Jamiat Ulema-i-Pakistan, Niazi faction or JUP/NI [leader NA]; Millat Part [Farooq LEGHARI]; Milli Yakjheti Council or MYC is an umbrella organization which includes Jamaat-i-Islami or JI [Qazi Hussain AHMED], Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam, Sami-ul-Haq faction or JUI/S, Tehrik-I-Jafria Pakistan or TJP [Allama Sajid NAQVI], and Jamiat Ulema-i-Pakistan, Noorani faction or JUP/NO; Mutahida Qaumi Movement, Altaf faction or MQM/A [Altaf HUSSAIN]; National People's Party or NPP [Ghulam Mustapha JATOI]; Pakhtun Khwa Milli Awami Party or PKMAP [Mahmood Khan ACHAKZAI]; Pakhtun Quami Party or PKQP [Mohammed AFZAL Khan]; Pakistan Awami Tehrik or PAT [Tahir ul QADRI]; Pakistan Muslim League, Functional Group or PML/F [Pir PAGARO]; Pakistan Muslim League, Junejo faction or PML/J [Hamid Nasir CHATTHA]; Pakistan Muslim League, Nawaz Sharif faction or PML/N [Nawaz SHARIF]; Pakistan National Party or PNP [leader NA]; Pakistan People's Party or PPP [Benazir BHUTTO]; Pakistan People's Party/Shaheed Bhutto or PPP/SB [Ghinva BHUTTO]; Pakistan Tehrik-e-Insaaf or PTI [Imran KHAN] political alliances in Pakistan can shift frequently)

Palau

Palau Nationalist Party [Polycarp BASILIUS]

Panama

Arnulfista Party or PA [Mireya Elisa MOSCOSO Rodriguez]; Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Ruben AROSEMENA]; Civic Renewal Party or PRC [Serguei DE LA ROSA]; Democratic Change [Ricardo MARTINELLI]; Democratic Revolutionary Party or PRD [Martin TORRIJOS]; National Liberal Party or PLN [Dr. Roberto ALEMAN Zubieta, Oscar UCROS, Raul ARANGO]; National Renovation Movement or MORENA [Joaquin Jose VALLARINO]; Nationalist Republican Liberal Movement or MOLIRENA [Arturo VALLARINO]; Solidarity Party or PS [Ricardo FABREGA]

Papua New Guinea

Black Action Party [Paul WANJIK]; Bougainville Unity Alliance or BUA [Samuel AKOITAI]; Christian Democratic Party [Dilu GOMA]; Hausman Party [Waim TOKAM]; League for National Advancement or LNA [leader NA]; Liberal Party [Rabbie SAMAI]; Melanesian Alliance or MA [Fr. John MOMIS]; Melanesian Labor Party [Paul MONDIA]; Milne Bay Party [Simon MUMURIK]; Movement for Greater Autonomy [Stephen POKAWIN]; National Alliance or NA [Michael SOMARE]; National Party or NP [Paul PORA]; Papua New Guinea First Party (includes People's National Congress or PNC [Simon KAUMI] and Christian Country Party [Avusi TANO]); Papua New Guinea United Party or Pangu Pati [Chris HAIVETA]; People's Action Party or PAP [Ted DIRO]; People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Iario LASARO]; People's National Alliance [leader NA]; People's Progress Party or PPP [Michael NALI]; People's Resources Awareness Party [leader NA]; People's Solidarity Party [Kala SWOKIM]; People's Unity Party or PUP [Alfred KAIABE]; United Party or UP [Rimbiuk PATO]; United Resource Party [Masket IANGALIO]

Paraguay

Authentic Radical Liberal Party or PLRA [Julio Cesar "Yolito" FRANCO]; Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Miguel MONTANER]; Febrerista Revolutionary Party or PRF [Carlos Maria LJUBETIC]; National Encounter or PEN [Mario PAZ Castaing]; National Republican Association - Colorado Party [acting president Bader RACHID LICHI]

Peru

American Popular Revolutionary Alliance or APRA [Luis ALVA Castro]; Change 90-New Majority or C90/NM [Alberto FUJIMORI]; Civic Works Movement or OBRAS [Ricardo BELMONT]; Democratic Coordinator or CODE-Pais Posible [Jose BARBA Caballero and Alejandro TOLEDO]; Independent Agrarian Movement or MIA [leader NA]; Independent Moralizing Front or FIM [Fernando OLIVERA Vega]; Peru 2000 [Alberto FUJIMORI]; coalition of C90/NM and Vamos Vecino; Popular Action Party or AP [Juan DIAZ Leon]; Popular Christian Party or PPC [Luis BEDOYA Reyes]; Renovation Party [Rafael REY Rey]; Union for Peru or UPP [Javier PEREZ de CUELLAR]; United Left or IU [leader NA]; Vamos Vecino or VV [leader NA]

Philippines

Aksyon Demokratiko or Democratic Action [Raul ROCO]; Laban Ng Masang Pilipino or LAMP (Struggle of the Filipino Masses) [Joseph ESTRADA, titular head, Eduardo "Danding" COJUANGO, chairman, Edgardo ANGARA, party president]; Lakas [Raul MANGLAPUS, chairman, Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO, secretary general, Jose DE VENECIA, party president]; Liberal Party or LP [Raul DAZA, president, Jovito SALONGA, chairman, Florencio ABAD, secretary general]; People's Reform Party or PRP [Miriam DEFENSOR-SANTIAGO]

Pitcairn Islands

none

Poland

Center Alliance Party or PC [Antoni TOKARCZUK]; Christian National Union or ZCHN [Marian PILKA]; Confederation for an Independent Poland or KPN [Leszek MOCZULSKI]; Confederation for an Independent Poland-Patriotic Camp or KPN-OP (KPN-Fatherland or KPN-O is a small group within the KPN-OP) [Adam SLOMKA]; Conservative Peasant Party or SKL [Miroslaw STYCZEN]; Democratic Left Alliance or SLD (Social Democracy of Poland) [Leszek MILLER]; Freedom Union or UW [Leszek BALCEROWICZ]; German Minority of Lower Silesia or MNSO [Henryk KROLL]; Labor Party or PP [leader NA]; Labor Union or UP [Marek POL]; Movement of Polish Working People or RLP [leader NA]; Movement for the Reconstruction of Poland or ROP [Jan OLSZEWSKI]; Polish Christian Democrats or PPChD [Antoni TOKARCZUK]; Polish Peasant Party or PSL [Jaroslaw KALINOWSKI]; Polish Socialist Party or PPS [Piotr IKONOWICZ]; Realpolitik Union or UPR [Janusz KORWIN-MIKKE]; Solidarity Electoral Action or AWS (includes RS-AWS and Solidarity) [Marek KOTLARSKI]; Social Movement-Solidarity Electoral Action or RS-AWS [Jerzy BUZEK] (Note: post-Communist - SLD and PSL; post-Solidarity - UW, Freedom Union, ZCHN, PC, PL, RS AWS, UP, and PK; non-Communist, non-Solidarity - ROP, KPN, MN, and UPR)

Portugal

Popular Party or PP [Paulo PORTAS]; Portuguese Communist Part/United Democratic Coalition or PCP/CDU [Carlos CARVALHAS]; Portuguese Socialist Party or PSP [Antonio GUTERRES]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Jose Manuel DURAO BARROSO]; The Left Bloc [Francisco LOUCA]

Puerto Rico

National Democratic Party [William MIRANDA]; National Republican Party of Puerto Rico [Luis FERRE]; New Progressive Party or PNP [Pedro ROSSELLO]; Popular Democratic Party or PPD [Anibal ACEVIDA Vila]; Puerto Rican Independence Party or PIP [Ruben BERRIOS Martinez]

Qatar

none

Reunion

Communist Party of Reunion or PCR [Paul VERGES]; France-Reunion Future or FRA [Andre THIEN AH KOON]; Mouvement des Radicaux de Gauche or MRG [Jean-Marie FINCK]; National Front or FN [Alix MOREL]; Rally for the Republic or RPR [Andre Maurice PIHOUEE]; Socialist Party or PS [Jean-Claude FRUTEAU]; Union for France or UPF (includes RPR and UDF) [leader NA]; Union for French Democracy or UDF [Gilbert GERARD]

Romania

Agrarian Democratic Party of Romania or PDAR [Mihai BERCA]; Alliance Party for Romania or APR [Tedor MELESCANU]; Civic Alliance Party or PAC [Nicolae MANOLESCU, chairman]; Democratic Party or PD [Petre ROMAN]; Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania or UDMR [Bela MARKO]; Liberal Party '93 or PL-93 [Dinu PATRICIU]; National Liberal Party or PNL [Mircea IONESCU-QUINTUS]; National Liberal Party-Democratic Convention or PNL-CD [Nicolae CERVENI]; National Peasants' Christian and Democratic Party or PNTCD [Ion DIACONESCU]; Party of Social Democracy in Romania or PDSR [Ion ILIESCU]; Romania Mare Party (Greater Romanian Party) or PRM [Corneliu Vadim TUDOR]; Romanian National Unity Party or PUNR [Valeriu TABARA]; Romanian Social Democratic Party or PSDR [Alexamdru ATHANASIU]; Socialist Labor Party or PSM [Ilie VERDET]; Socialist Party or PS [Tudor MOHORA]; The Democratic Convention or CDR [Ion DIACONESCU] (Note: to increase their voting strength several of the above-mentioned parties united under umbrella organizations: PNTCD, PNL, and PNL-CD form the bulk of the Democratic Convention or CDR [Ion DIACONESCU]; PD and PSDR form the Union of Social Democrats or USD [Petre ROMAN]; and PAC and PL-93 form the National Liberal Alliance or ANL [Nicolae MANOLESCU]; PSM, PS, ANL, and numerous other small parties failed to gain representation in the most recent election)

Russia

Agro-industrial faction [leader NA]; Communist Party of the Russian Federation or KPRF [Gennadiy Andreyevich ZYUGANOV]; Fatherland-All Russia or OVR [Yevgeniy Maksimovich PRIMAKOV, Yuriy Mikhailovich LUZHKOV]; Liberal Democratic Party of Russia [Vladimir Volfovich ZHIRINOVSKIY]; People's Deputies faction [leader NA]; Russia's Regions [leader NA]; Union of Right Forces [Sergey Vladilenovich KIRIYENKO]; Unity [Sergey Kuzhugetovich SHOYGU]; Yabloko Bloc [Grigoriy Alekseyevich YAVLINSKIY] (Note: some 150 political parties, blocs, and movements registered with the Justice Ministry as of the 19 December 1998 deadline to be eligible to participate in the 19 December 1999 Duma elections; of these, 36 political organizations actually qualified to run slates of candidates on the Duma party list ballot, 6 parties cleared the 5% threshold to win a proportional share of the 225 party seats in the Duma, 8 other organizations hold seats in the Duma: Bloc of Nikolayev and Academician Fedorov, Congress of Russian Communities, Movement in Support of the Army, Our Home Is Russia, Party of Pensioners, Russian All-People's Union, Russian Socialist Party, and Spiritual Heritage; primary political blocs include pro-market democrats - (Yabloko Bloc and Union of Right Forces), anti-market and/or ultranationalist (Communist Party of the Russian Federation and Liberal Democratic Party of Russia))

Rwanda

Centrist Democratic Party or PDC [Jean-Nipomuscene NAYINZIRA]; Democratic and Socialist Party or PSD [Charles NIAKIRUTINKA, Juvenal NKSUI, Jacqueline MUHONGAYRIE]; Democratic Republican Movement or MDR [Pierre Celestin RWIGEMA, chairman]; Islamic Democratic Party or PDI [leader NA]; Liberal Party or PL [Agnes NTAMABYALIRO]; National Repulican Movement for Democracy and Development or MRNDD (formerly known as the National Movement for Democracy and Development or MRND [Mathieu NGIRUMPATSE]; Rwanda Patriotic Army or RPA [Maj. Gen. Paul KAGAME, commander]; Rwandan Patriotic Front or FPR [Maj. Gen. Paul KAGAME]; Rwandan Socialist Party or PSR [leader NA]

Saint Helena

none

Saint Kitts and Nevis

Concerned Citizens Movement or CCM [Vance AMORY]; Nevis Reformation Party or NRP [Joseph PARRY]; People's Action Movement or PAM [Dr. Kennedy SIMMONDS]; Saint Kitts and Nevis Labor Party or SKNLP [Dr. Denzil DOUGLAS]

Saint Lucia

National Freedom Party or NFP [Martinus FRANCOIS]; Saint Lucia Labor Party or SLP [Kenneth ANTHONY]; United Workers Party or UWP [leader NA]

Saint Pierre and Miquelon

Rassemblement pour la Republique or RPR [leader NA]; Socialist Party or PS [leader NA]; Union pour la Democratie Francaise or UDF [leader NA]

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

National Reform Party or NRP [Joel MIGUEL]; New Democratic Party or NDP [James F. MITCHELL]; Progressive Labor Party or PLP [leader NA]; United People's Movement or UPM [Adrian SAUNDERS]; Unity Labor Party or ULP [Ralph GONSALVES] (formed by the coalition of Saint Vincent Labor Party or SVLP and the Movement for National Unity or MNU)

Samoa

Human Rights Protection Party or HRPP [TUILA'EPA Sailele Malielegaoi, chairman]; Samoa All People's Party or SAPP [Matatumua MAIMOAGA]; Samoan National Development Party or SNDP [TAPUA Tamasese Efi, chairman] (opposition); Samoan Progressive Conservative Party [LEOTA Ituau Ale]

San Marino

Communist Refoundation or RC [Giuseppe AMICHI]; Democratic Movement or MD [Emilio DELLA BALDA]; San Marino Christian Democratic Party or PDCS [Cesare Antonio GASPERONI, secretary general]; San Marino Popular Democratic Party or APDS [Antonella MULARONI]; San Marino Progressive Democratic Party or PPDS [Stefano MACINA, secretary general]; San Marino Socialist Party or PSS [Maurizio RATTINI, secretary general]; Socialists for Reform or SR [Renzo GIARDI]

Sao Tome and Principe

Christian Democratic Front or FDC [Alphonse Dos SANTOS]; Democratic Opposition Coalition or CODO [leader NA]; Independent Democratic Action or ADI [Carlos NEVES]; Movement for the Liberation of Sao Tome and Principe-Social Democratic Party or MLSTP-PSD [Manuel Pinto Da COSTA]; Party for Democratic Convergence or PCD [Armindo AGUIAR, secretary general]; other small parties

Saudi Arabia

none allowed

Senegal

African Party for Democracy and Socialism or And Jef (also known as PADS/AJ) [Landing SAVANE, secretary general]; African Party of Independence [Majhemout DIOP]; Democratic and Patriotic Convention or CDP (also known as Garab-Gi) [Dr. Iba Der THIAM]; Democratic League-Labor Party Movement or LD-MPT [Dr. Abdoulaye BATHILY]; Front for Socialism and Democracy or FSD [Cheikh Abdoulaye DIEYE]; Gainde Centrist Bloc or BGC [Jean-Paul DIAS]; Independence and Labor Party or PIT [Amath DANSOKHO]; National Democratic Rally or RND [Madier DIOUF]; Senegalese Democratic Party or PDS [Abdoulaye WADE]; Senegalese Democratic Party-Renewal or PDS-R [Serigne Lamine DIOP, secretary general]; Senegalese Democratic Union-Renewal or UDS-R [Mamadou Puritain FALL]; Socialist Party or PS [President Abdou DIOUF]; Union for Democratic Renewal or URD [Djibo Leyti KA]; other small parties

Serbia and Montenegro

Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians or SVM [Jozsef KASZA]; Civic Alliance of Serbia or GSS [Goran SVILANOVIC, chairman]; Democratic Alliance of Kosovo or LDK [Dr. Ibrahim RUGOVA, president]; Democratic Alliance of Vojvodina Croats or DSHV [Bela TONKOVIC]; Democratic Community of Vojvodina Hungarians or DZVM [Sandor PALL]; Democratic League of Albanians [Rexhep QOSJA]; Democratic Party or DS [Zoran DJINDJIC]; Democratic Party of Serbia or DSS [Vojislav KOSTUNICA]; Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro or DPS [Milo DJUKANOVIC]; League of Social Democrats of Vojvodina or LSV [Nenad CANAK]; Liberal Alliance of Montenegro [Slavko PEROVIC]; New Democracy or ND [Dusan MIHAJLOVIC]; Parliamentary Party of Kosovo or PPK [Bajram KOSUMI]; Party for the Democratic Progress of Kosovo or PPDK [Hashim THACI]; Party of Democratic Action or SDA [Dr. Sulejman UGLJANIN]; People's Party of Montenegro or NS [Novak KILIBARDA]; Reformist Democratic Party of Vojvodina or RDSV [Miodrag JSAKOV]; Serbian Radical Party or SRS [Vojislav SESELJ]; Serbian Renewal Movement or SPO [Vuk DRASKOVIC, president]; Serbian Socialist Party or SPS (former Communist Party) [Slobodan MILOSEVIC]; Social Democratic Party of Montenegro or SDP [Zarko RAKCEVIC]; Socialist People's Party of Montenegro or SNP [Momir BULATOVIC]; Yugoslav United Left or JUL [Mirjana MARKOVIC (MILOSEVIC's wife)]

Seychelles

Democratic Party or DP [leader NA]; New Democratic Party [Christopher GILL (former member of DP)]; Seychelles People's Progressive Front or SPPF [France Albert RENE] - the governing party; United Opposition or UO [Wavel RAMKALAWAN] - a coalition of the following parties: Seychelles Party or PS [Wavel RAMKALAWAN], Seychelles Democratic Movement or MSPD [Jacques HONDOUL], and Seychelles Liberal Party or SLP [Ogilvie BERLOUIS]

Sierra Leone

All People's Congress or APC [Edward Mohammed TURAY, chairman]; Democratic Centre Party or DCP [Adu Aiah KOROMA]; National Democratic Alliance or NDA [Amadu M. B. JALLOH]; National Republican Party or NRP [Sahr Stephen MAMBU]; National Unity Party or NUP [Dr. John KARIMU, chairman]; People's Democratic Party or PDP [Thaimu BANGURA, chairman]; People's Progressive Party or PPP [Abass Chernok BUNDU, chairman]; Revolutionary United Front Party or RUFP [Foday SANKOH, chairman]; Sierra Leone People's Party or SLPP [President Ahmad Tejan KABBAH, chairman]; United National People's Party or UNPP [John KARIFA-SMART in exile, Raymond KAMARA, acting leader]

Singapore

National Solidarity Party or NSP [C. K. TAN]; People's Action Party or PAP [GOH Chok Tong, secretary general] - the governing party; Singapore Democratic Party or SDP [CHEE Soon Juan]; Singapore People's Party or SPP [CHIAM See Tong]; Workers' Party or WP [J. B. JEYARETNAM and LOW Thia Khiang]

Slovakia

Christian Democratic Movement or KDH [Jan CARNOGURSKY]; Coexistence [Miklos DURAY]; Democratic Party or DS [Jan LANGOS]; Democratic Union or DU [Lubomir HARACH]; Hungarian Christian Democratic Movement or MKDH [Bela BUGAR]; Hungarian Civic Party or MOS [Laszlo A. NAGY]; Movement for a Democratic Slovakia or HZDS [Vladimir MECIAR]; Party of Civic Understanding or SOP [Pavol HAMZIK]; Party of Greens in Slovakia or SZS [Ladislav AMBROS]; Party of the Democratic Center or SDS [Ivan MJARTAN]; Party of the Democratic Left or SDL [Jozef MIGAS]; Party of the Hungarian Coalition or SMK (includes MKDH, MOS, and Coexistence) [Bela BUGAR]; Slovak Democratic Coalition or SDK (includes KDH, DS, DU, SSDS, SZS) [Mikulas DZURINDA]; Slovak National Party or SNS [Anna MALIKOVA]; Social Democratic Party of Slovakia or SSDS [Jaroslav VOLF]; SMER [Robert FICO]

Slovenia

Democratic Party of Retired (Persons) of Slovenia or DeSUS [Joze GLOBACNIK]; Liberal Democratic or LDS [Janez DRNOVSEK, chairman]; Slovene Christian Democrats or SKD [Lozje PETERLE, chairman]; Slovene National Party or SNS [Zmago JELINCIC, chairman]; Slovene People's Party or SLS [Marjan PODOBNIK, chairman]; Social Democratic Party of Slovenia or SDS [Janez JANSA, chairman]; United List (former Communists and allies) or ZLSD [Janez KOCIJANCIC, chairman]

Solomon Islands

characterized by fluid coalitions; Christian Fellowship [leader NA]; Group for National Unity and Reconciliation or GNUR [leader NA]; Labor Party or LP [Joses TUHANUKU]; Liberal Party [Bartholomew ULUFA'ALU]; National Action Party of Solomon Islands or NAPSI [leader NA]; National Party [leader NA]; Nationalist Front for Progress or NFP [Andrew NORI]; People's Alliance Party or PAP [leader NA]; Solomon Islands Labor Party or SILP [leader NA]; Solomon Islands National Unity, Reconciliation, and Progressive Party or SINURP [Job Duddley TAUSINGA] (leader of opposition); United Party or UP [leader NA]

Somalia

none

South Africa

African Christian Democratic Party or ACDP [Kenneth MESHOE, president]; African National Congress or ANC [Thabo MBEKI, president]; Democratic Party or DP [Tony LEON, president]; Freedom Front or FF [Constand VILJOEN, president]; Inkatha Freedom Party or IFP [Mangosuthu BUTHELEZI, president]; National Party (now the New National Party) or NP [Marthinus VAN SCHALKWYK, executive director]; Pan-Africanist Congress or PAC [Stanley MOGOBA, president]; United Democratic Movement or UDM [Bantu HOLOMISA]

Spain

Basque Nationalist Party or PNV [Xabier ARZALLUS Antia]; Canarian Coalition or CC (a coalition of five parties) [Lorenzo OLLARTE Cullen]; Convergence and Union or CiU [Jordi PUJOL i Soley, secretary general] (a coalition of the Democratic Convergence of Catalonia or CDC [Jordi PUJOL i Soley] and the Democratic Union of Catalonia or UDC [Josep Antoni DURAN y LLEIDA]); Galician Nationalist Bloc or BNG [Xose Manuel BEIRAS]; Party of Independents from Lanzarote or PIL [leader NA]; Popular Party or PP [Jose Maria AZNAR Lopez]; Spanish Communist Party or PCE [Francisco FRUTOS]; Spanish Socialist Workers Party or PSOE [Joaquin ALMUNIA Amann, secretary general]; United Left or IU (a coalition of parties including the PCE and other small parties) [Francisco FRUTOS]

Sri Lanka

All Ceylon Tamil Congress or ACTC [leader NA]; Ceylon Workers Congress or CLDC [leader NA]; Communist Party [leader NA]; Communist Party/Beijing or CP/B [leader NA]; Democratic People's Liberation Front or DPLF [leader NA]; Democratic United National (Lalith) Front or DUNLF [leader NA]; Desha Vimukthi Janatha Party or DVJP [leader NA]; Eelam People's Democratic Party or EPDP [leader NA]; Eelam People's Revolutionary Liberation Front or EPRLF [leader NA]; Eelam Revolutionary Organization of Students or EROS [leader NA]; Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna or JVP [leader NA]; Lanka Socialist Party/Trotskyite or LSSP (Lanka Sama Samaja Party) [leader NA]; Liberal Party or LP [leader NA]; New Socialist Party or NSSP (Nava Sama Samaja Party) [leader NA]; People's Alliance or PA [Chandrika Bandaranaike KUMARATUNGA]; People's Liberation Organization of Tamil Eelam or PLOTE [D. SIDDHARTHAN]; People's United Front or MEP (Mahajana Eksath Peramuna) [Dinesh GUNAWARDENE]; Sri Lanka Freedom Party or SLFP [Chandrika Bandaranaike KUMARATUNGA]; Sri Lanka Muslim Congress or SLMC [leader NA]; Sri Lanka People's Party or SLMP (Sri Lanka Mahajana Party) [leader NA]; Sri Lanka Progressive Front or SLPF [leader NA]; Tamil Eelam Liberation Organization or TELO [leader NA]; Tamil United Liberation Front or TULF [leader NA]; United National Party or UNP [Ranil WICKREMASINGHE]; Upcountry People's Front or UPF [leader NA]; several ethnic Tamil and Muslim parties, represented in either parliament or provincial councils

Sudan

political parties were banned following 30 June 1989 coup, however, political "associations" are allowed under a new law drafted in 1998 and implemented on 1 January 1999 and include - National Congress [Umar Hasan Ahmad al-BASHIR] (Note: the political association law is currently under review)

Suriname

Alternative Forum or AF [Rick VAN RAVENSWAY]; Democratic Alternative '91 or DA '91 (a coalition of the AF and BEP, formed in January 1991) [Winston JESSURUN]; Democratic Party or DP [Frank PLAYFAIR]; Independent Progressive Democratic Alternative or OPDA [Joginder RAMKHILAWAN]; National Democratic Party or NDP [Desire BOUTERSE]; National Party of Suriname or NPS [Ronald VENETIAAN]; Naya Kadam [Marijke DJWALAPERSAD]; Party for Brotherhood and Unity in Politics or BEP [Caprino ALLENDE]; Party for Renewal and Democracy or BVD [Atta MUNGRA]; Party of National Unity and Solidarity or KTPI [Willy SOEMITA]; Party of the Federation of Land Workers or PVF [Jwan SITAL]; Pertjaja Luhur [Paul SOMOHARDJO]; Progressive Reform Party or VHP [Jaggernath LACHMON]; Progressive Workers' and Farm Laborers' Union or PALU [Ir Iwan KROLIS]; Reformed Progressive Party or HPP [Harry KISOENSINGH]; Suriname Labor Party or SPA [Fred DERBY]; The New Front or NF (a coalition of four parties NPS, VHP, SPA, and Pertjaja Luhur) [Ronald R. VENETIAAN]; The Progressive Development Alliance (a combination of two parties, HPP and PVF) [Harry KISOENSINGH]

Swaziland

Convention for Full Democracy in Swaziland or COFUDESWA [Sabelo DLAMINI]; Ngwane Socialist Revolutionary Party or NGWASOREP [leader NA]; People's United Democratic Movement or PUDEMO [Mario MASUKU]; Swaziland Communist Party or SWACOPA [Mphandlana SHONGWE]; Swaziland Democratic Alliance (represents key opposition parties) [Jerry NXUMALO]; Swaziland Federation of Trade Unions or SFTU [Jan SITHOLE]; Swaziland Liberation Front or FROLISA [leader NA]; Swaziland National Front or SWANAFRO [leader NA]; Swaziland Youth Congress or SWAYOCO (included in PUDEMO) (Note: political parties are banned by the constitution promulgated on 13 October 1978; illegal parties are prohibited from holding large public gatherings)

Sweden

Center Party [Lennart DALEUS]; Christian Democratic Party [Alf SVENSSON]; Communist Workers' Party [Rolf HAGEL]; Green Party [no formal leader but party spokesperson is Briger SCHLAUG]; Left Party or VP (formerly Communist) [Gudrun SCHYMAN]; Liberal People's Party [Lars LEIJONBORG]; Moderate Party (conservative) [Bo LUNDGREN]; New Democracy Party [Vivianne FRANZEN]; Social Democratic Party [Goran PERSSON]

Switzerland

Alliance of Independents' Party (Landesring der Unabhaengigen or LdU, Alliance des Independants or AdI) [Anton SCHALLER, president]; Christian Democratic People's Party (Christichdemokratische Volkspartei der Schweiz or CVP, Parti Democrate-Chretien Suisse or PDC, Partito Democratico-Cristiano Popolare Svizzero or PDC, Partida Cristiandemocratica dalla Svizra or PCD) [Adalbert DURRER, president]; Freedom Party or FPS [Roland BORER]; Green Party (Grune Partei der Schweiz or Grune, Parti Ecologiste Suisse or Les Verts, Partito Ecologista Svizzero or I Verdi, Partida Ecologica Svizra or La Verda) [Hanspetev THUER, president]; Radical Free Democratic Party (Freisinnig-Demokratische Partei der Schweiz or FDP, Parti Radical-Democratique Suisse or PRD, Partitio Liberal-Radicale Svizzero or PLR) [Franz STEINEGGER, president]; Social Democratic Party (Sozialdemokratische Partei der Schweiz or SPS, Parti Socialist Suisse or PSS, Partito Socialista Svizzero or PSS, Partida Socialdemocratica de la Svizra or PSS) [Ursula HAFNER, president]; Swiss People's Party (Schweizerische Volkspartei or SVP, Union Democratique du Centre or UDC, Unione Democratica de Centro or UDC, Uniun Democratica dal Center or UDC) [Christoph BLOCHER, president]; Ticino League (Lega dei Ticinesi) [leader NA]; and other minor parties including Swiss Democratic Party (Schweizer Demokraten or SD, Democrates Suisses or DS, Democratici Svizzeri or DS), Liberal Party (Liberale Partei der Schweiz or LPS, Parti Liberal Suisse or PLS, Partito Liberale Svizzero or PLS), Workers' Party (Parti Suisse du Travail or PST, Partei der Arbeit der Schweiz or PdAdS, Partito Svizzero del Lavoro or PSdL), Evangelical People's Party (Evangelische Volkspartei der Schweiz or EVP, Parti Evangelique Suisse or PEV, Partito Evangelico Svizzero or PEV), and the Union of Federal Democrats (Eidgenossisch-Demokratische Union or EDU, Union Democratique Federale or UDF, Unione Democratica Federale or UDF)

Syria

National Progressive Front (NPF) (includes the Ba'th Party, ASU, Arab Socialist Party, Socialist Unionist Democratic Party, ASP, SCP) [President Hafiz al-ASAD]; Arab Socialist Renaissance (Ba'th) Party (governing party) [Hafiz al-ASAD, president of the republic, secretary general of the party, and chairman of the National Progressive Front]; Arab Socialist Unionist Movement or ASU [Fayiz ISMAIL]; Arab Socialist Party [Abd al-Ghani KANNUT]; Socialist Unionist Democratic Party [Ahmad al-ASAD]; Syrian Arab Socialist Party or ASP [Ghassan 'Abd-al-Aziz UTHMAN]; Syrian Communist Party or SCP [Yusuf FAYSAL]

Taiwan

Chinese New Party or CNP [CHOU Yang-sun]; Democratic Progressive Party or DPP [LIN Yi-hsiung, chairman]; Kuomintang or KMT (Nationalist Party) [LIEN Chan, acting chairman]; Taiwan Independence Party or TAIP [CHENG Pang-chen]; other minor parties

Tajikistan

Democratic Party or TDP [Mahmadruzi ISKANDDAROV, chairman]; Islamic Rebirth Party [Muhammadsharif HIMMAT-ZODA, chairman]; Lali Badakhshan Movement [Atobek AMIRBEKOV]; National Unity Party - evolved from the People's Party and Party of People's Unity; Party of Justice and Development [Rahmatullo ZOIROV]; People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan or PDPT [Abdulmajid DOSTIEV]; Rastokhez (Rebirth) Movement [Tohiri ABDUJABBOR]; Tajik Communist Party or CPT [Shodi SHABDOLOV]; Tajikistan Party of Economic and Political Renewal or TPEPR [leader NA]; United Tajik Opposition or UTO [Said Abdullo NURI] - an umbrella group including; Adolatho "Justice" Party [Abdurahmon KARIMOV, chairman]

Tanzania

Chama Cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo or CHADEMA [Bob MGKANI, chairman]; Chama Cha Mapinduzi or CCM (Revolutionary Party) [Benjamin William MKAPA]; Civic United Front or CUF [Seif Sharif HAMAD]; Democratic Party (unregistered) [Reverend MTIKLA]; National Convention for Construction and Reform or NCCR [Mabere MARANDO]; Tanzania Labor Party or TLP [Augustine Lyatonga MREMA]; Union for Multiparty Democracy or UMD [Abdullah FUNDIKIRA]; United Democratic Party or UDP [John CHEYO]

Thailand

Democratic Party or DP (Prachathipat Party) [CHUAN Likphai]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP (Seri Tham) [PHINIT Charusombat]; Mass Party or MP [CHALERM Yoobamrung, SOPHON Petchsavang]; National Development Party or NDP (Chat Phattana) [KON Thappharangsi]; New Aspiration Party or NAP (Khwamwang Mai) [Gen. CHAWALIT Yongchaiyut]; Phalang Dharma Party or PDP (Phalang Tham) [CHAIWAT Sinsuwong]; Social Action Party or SAP (Kitsangkhom Party) [SUWIT Khunkitti]; Solidarity Party or SP (Ekkaphap Party) [CHAIYOT Sasomsap]; Thai Citizen's Party or TCP (Prachakon Thai) [SAMAK Sunthonwet]; Thai Nation Party or TNP (Chat Thai Party) [BANHAN Sinlapa-acha]; Thai Rak Thai Party or TRT [THAKSIN Chinnawat]

Togo

Action Committee for Renewal or CAR [Yawovi AGBOYIBO]; Coordination des Forces Nouvelles or CFN [Joseph KOFFIGOH]; Democratic Convention of African Peoples or CDPA [Leopold GNININVI]; Party for Democracy and Renewal or PDR [Zarifou AYEVA]; Patriotic Pan-African Convergence or CPP [Edem KODJO]; Rally of the Togolese People or RPT [President Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA]; Union of Forces for Change or UFC [Gilchrist OLYMPIO (in exile), Jeane-Pierre FABRE, general secretary in Togo]; Union of Independent Liberals or ULI [Jacques AMOUZO] (Note: Rally of the Togolese People or RPT, led by President EYADEMA, was the only party until the formation of multiple parties was legalized 12 April 1991)

Tokelau

none

Tonga

Human Rights and Democracy Movement [Huliki WATAB, chairman, Viliami FUKOFUKA, president, 'Akilisi POHIVA, vice president]

Trinidad and Tobago

Movement for Social Transformation or MOTION [David ABDULLAH]; Movement for Unity and Progress or MUP [Hulsie BHAGGAN]; National Alliance for Reconstruction or NAR [leader NA]; National Development Party or NDP [Carson CHARLES]; National Joint Action Committee or NJAC [Makandal DAAGA]; People's National Movement or PNM [Patrick MANNING]; United National Congress or UNC [Basdeo PANDAY]

Tunisia

Constitutional Democratic Rally Party or RCD [President BEN ALI (official ruling party)]; Movement of Democratic Socialists or MDS [leader NA]; five other political parties are legal, including the Communist Party

Turkey

Changing Turkey Party or DEPAR [Gokhan CAPOGLU]; Democracy and Peace Party or DBP [Yilmaz CAMLIBEL]; Democratic Left Party or DSP [Bulent ECEVIT]; Democratic Party or DP [Korkut OZAL]; Democratic Turkey Party or DTP [Husamettin CINDORUK]; Enlightened Turkey Party or ATP [Tugrul TURKES]; Freedom and Solidarity Party or ODP [Ufuk URAS]; Grand Unity Party or BBP [Muhsin YAZICIOGLU]; Labor Party or EP [Ihsan CARALAN]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Besim TIBUK]; Motherland Party or ANAP [Mesut YILMAZ]; My Turkey Party or TP [Durmus Ali EKER]; Nation Party or MP [Aykut EDIBALI]; Nationalist Action Party or MHP [Devlet BAHCELI]; New Democracy Movement or YDH [Huseyin ERGUN]; Peace Party or BP [Ali Haydar VEZIROGLU]; People's Democracy Party or HADEP [Turhan DEMIR]; Republican People's Party or CHP [Altan OYMEN]; Revolutionary People's Party [Meral KIDIR]; Socialist Power Party or SIP [leader NA]; True Path Party or DYP [Tansu CILLER]; Virtue Party or FP [Recai KUTAN]; Workers' Party or IP [Dogu PERINCEK] (Note: Welfare Party or RP [Necmettin ERBAKAN] was officially outlawed on 22 February 1998)

Turkmenistan

Democratic Party of Turkmenistan or DPT [Saparmurat NIYAZOV] (Note: formal opposition parties are outlawed; unofficial, small opposition movements exist underground or in foreign countries)

Turks and Caicos Islands

People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Derek H. TAYLOR]; Progressive National Party or PNP [Washington MISICK]; United Democratic Party or UDP [Wendal SWANN]

Tuvalu

there are no political parties but members of Parliament usually align themselves in informal groupings

Uganda

only one political organization, the National Resistance Movement or NRM [President MUSEVENI, chairman] is recognized; note - the president maintains that the NRM is not a political party, but a movement which claims the loyalty of all Ugandans (Note: of the political parties that exist but are prohibited from sponsoring candidates, the most important are the Ugandan People's Congress or UPC [Milton OBOTE]; Democratic Party or DP [Paul SSEMOGERERE]; and Conservative Party or CP [Joshua S. MAYANJA-NKANGI]; the new constitution requires the suspension of political party activity until a referendum is held on the matter in 2000)

Ukraine

Agrarian Party of Ukraine or APU [Mykhaylo HLADIY, chairperson]; Communist Party of Ukraine [Petro SYMONENKO]; Fatherland (Motherland) All Ukrainian Party [Yuliya TYMOSHENKO, chairperson]; Green Party of Ukraine or PZU [Vitaliy KONONOV, chairman]; Hromada [Pavlo LAZARENKO]; Liberal Party of Ukraine or LPU [Volodymyr SHCHERBAN]; Party of Regional Revival of Ukraine or PRVU [Volodymyr RYBAK]; Peasant Party of Ukraine or SelPU [Serhiy DOVHAN]; People's Democratic Party [Valeriy PUSTOVOYTENKO, chairman]; People's Movement of Ukraine or Rukh U [Hennadiy UDOVENKO, chairman]; Progressive Socialist Party [Nataliya VITRENKO]; Reforms Congress [leader NA]; Reforms and Order Party [Viktor PYNZENYK]; Sobor Party [Anatoliy MATVIYENKO, chairman]; Social Democratic Party of Ukraine (United) [Viktor MEDVEDCHUK, chairman]; Socialist Party of Ukraine or SPU [Oleksandr MOROZ, chairman]; Trudova Ukrayina/Working Ukraine [Igor SHAROV, chairman]; Ukrainian Popular Movement or Rukh K [Yuriy KOSTENKO, chairman]; United Social Democratic Party of Ukraine [Viktor MEDVEDCHUK]; Yabluko Party [Viktor CHAYKA, chairman] (Note: and numerous smaller parties)

United Arab Emirates

none

United Kingdom

Alliance Party (Northern Ireland) [Seamus CLOSE]; Conservative and Unionist Party [William HAGUE]; Democratic Unionist Party (Northern Ireland) [Rev. Ian PAISLEY]; Labor Party [Anthony (Tony) Blair]; Liberal Democrats [Charles KENNEDY]; Scottish National Party [Alex SALMOND]; Sinn Fein (Northern Ireland) [Gerry ADAMS]; Social Democratic and Labor Party or SDLP (Northern Ireland) [John HUME]; Ulster Unionist Party (Northern Ireland) [David TRIMBLE]; Welsh National Party (Plaid Cymru) [Dafydd Iwan WIGLEY]

United States

Democratic Party [Steve GROSSMAN, national committee chairman]; Republican Party [Jim NICHOLSON, national committee chairman]; several other groups or parties of minor political significance

Uruguay

Batlleist faction of the Colorado Party [Julio M. SANGUINETTI]; Broad Front Coalition [Tabare VAZQUEZ]; Colorado Party [Jorge BATLLE]; Herrerista faction of the National Party [Luis A. LACALLE]; Herrero Wilsonista faction of the National Party [Alaberto VOLONTE]; National Party or Blanco [Luis A. LACALLE]; New Sector/Space Coalition or Nuevo Espacio [Rafael MICHELINI]; Progressive Encounter in the Broad Front or Encuentro Progresista [Tabare VAZQUEZ]

Uzbekistan

Adolat (Justice) Social Democratic Party [Turgunpulat DAMINOV, first secretary]; Democratic National Rebirth Party (Milly Tiklanish) or MTP [Ibrahim GAFUROV, chairman]; Fatherland Progress Party (Vatan Tarakiyoti) or VTP [Anvar YULDASHEV, chairman]; People's Democratic Party or NDP (formerly Communist Party) [Abdulkhafiz JALOLOV, first secretary]; Self-Sacrificers Party or Fidokorlar [Erkin NORBOTAEV, general secretary]

Vanuatu

Friend Melanesian Party [Albert RAVUTIA]; John Frum Movement [leader NA]; Melanesian Progressive Party or MPP [Barak SOPE]; Na-Griamel Movement [Frankie STEVENS]; National United Party or NUP [Willie TITONGOA]; Tan Union or TU [Vincent BOULEKONE]; Union of Moderate Parties or UMP [Serge VOHOR]; Vanuatu Party or VP [Donald KALPOKAS]; Vanuatu Republican Party [Maxime Carlot KORMAN]

Venezuela

Democratic Action or AD [leader NA]; Fifth Republic Movement or MVR [leader NA]; Homeland for All or PPT [leader NA]; Movement Toward Socialism or MAS [leader NA]; National Convergence or Convergencia [leader NA]; Radical Cause or La Causa R [leader NA]; Social Christian Party or COPEI [leader NA]

Vietnam

only party - Communist Party of Vietnam or CPV [Le Kha PHIEU, general secretary]

Virgin Islands

Democratic Party [James O'BRYAN, Jr.]; Independent Citizens' Movement or ICM [Virdin C. BROWN]; Republican Party [James OLIVER]

Wallis and Futuna

Lua Kae Tahi (Giscardians) [leader NA]; Mouvement des Radicaux de Gauche or MRG [leader NA]; Rally for the Republic or RPR [leader NA]; Taumu'a Lelei [leader NA]; Union Populaire Locale or UPL [leader NA]; Union Pour la Democratie Francaise or UDF [leader NA]

Yemen

there are over 12 political parties active in Yemen, some of the more prominent are: General People's Congress or GPC [President Ali Abdallah SALIH]; Islamic Reform Grouping or Islah [Shaykh Abdallah bin Husayn al-AHMAR]; National Arab Socialist Baath Party [Dr. Qassim SALAAM]; Nasserite Unionist Party [Abdel Malik al-MAKHLAFI]; Yemeni Socialist Party or YSP [Ali Salih MYQBIL] (Note: President SALIH's General People's Congress or GPC won a landslide victory in the April 1997 legislative election and no longer governs in coalition with Shaykh Abdallah bin Husayn al-AHMAR's Islamic Reform Grouping or Islah - the two parties had been in coalition since the end of the civil war in 1994; the YSP, a loyal opposition party, boycotted the April 1997 legislative election)

Zambia

Agenda for Zambia or AZ [Akashambatwa LEWANIKA]; Labor Party or LP [Chibiza MFUNI]; Liberal Progressive Front or LPF [Roger CHONGWE, president]; Movement for Democratic Process or MDP [Chama CHAKOM BOKA]; Movement for Multiparty Democracy or MMD [Frederick CHILUBA]; National Party or NP [Daniel LISULO]; United National Independence Party or UNIP [Kenneth KAUNDA]; United Party for National Development or UPND [Anderson MAZOKA]; Zambia Alliance for Progress or ZAP [Ben KAPILA]; Zambia Democratic Congress or Zadeco [Azwell BANDA]

Zimbabwe

Democratic Party or DP [Emmanuel MAGOCHE]; Forum Party of Zimbabwe [Enock DUMBUTSHENA]; Movement for Democratic Change or MOC [Morgan TSVANGIRAYI]; Popular Democratic Front or PDF [Austin CHAKAODZA]; United Parties [Abel MUZOREWA]; Zimbabwe African National Union-NDONGA or ZANU-NDONGA [Ndabaningi SITHOLE]; Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front or ZANU-PF [Robert MUGABE]; Zimbabwe Unity Movement or ZUM [Edgar TEKERE]
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