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Executive branch / elections

This page shows the value of the Executive branch / elections information field for all countries in the Country Guide.

Notes on this field are available at the Information Field Notes page.

Albania

president elected by the People's Assembly for a five-year term; election last held 24 July 1997 (next to be held NA 2002); prime minister appointed by the president

Algeria

president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 15 April 1999 (next to be held NA April 2004); prime minister appointed by the president

American Samoa

US president and vice president elected on the same ticket for four-year terms; governor and lieutenant governor elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 3 November 1996 (next to be held 7 November 2000)

Andorra

Executive Council president elected by the General Council and formally appointed by the coprinces for a four-year term; election last held 16 February 1997 (next to be held NA 2001)

Angola

President DOS SANTOS originally elected (in 1979) without opposition under a one-party system and stood for reelection in Angola's first multiparty elections 28-29 September 1992, the last elections to be held (next to be held NA)

Anguilla

none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; chief minister appointed by the governor from among the members of the House of Assembly

Antigua and Barbuda

none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general chosen by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister; prime minister appointed by the governor general

Argentina

president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 24 October 1999 (next to be held NA October 2003)

Armenia

president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; special election last held 30 March 1998 (next to be held NA March 2003); prime minister appointed by the president

Aruba

the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed for a six-year term by the monarch; prime minister and deputy prime minister elected by the Staten for four-year terms; election last held 12 July 1997 (next to be held by December 2001)

Australia

none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general for a three-year term (Note: government coalition - Liberal Party and National Party)

Austria

president elected by direct popular vote for a six-year term; presidential election last held 19 April 1998 (next to be held in the spring of 2004); chancellor traditionally chosen by the president from the plurality party in the National Council; in the case of the current coalition, the chancellor was chosen from another party after the plurality party failed to form a government; vice chancellor chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor

Azerbaijan

president elected by popular vote to a five-year term; election last held 11 October 1998 (next to be held October 2003); prime minister and first deputy prime ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly

Bahamas, The

none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general

Bahrain

none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch

Bangladesh

president elected by National Parliament for a five-year term; election last held 24 July 1996 (next to be held by NA October 2001); following legislative elections, the leader of the party that wins the most seats is usually appointed prime minister by the president

Barbados

none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; prime minister appointed by the governor general

Belarus

president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 24 June and 10 July 1994 (next to be held NA; according to the 1994 constitution, the next election should have been held in 1999, however LUKASHENKO extended his term to 2001 via the November 1996 referendum); prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president

Belgium

none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch and then approved by Parliament (Note: government coalition - VLD, PRL, PS, SP, AGALEV, and ECOLO)

Belize

none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; governor general appoints the member of the House of Representatives who is leader of the majority party to be prime minister

Benin

president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 18 March 1996 (next to be held NA March 2001)

Bermuda

none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; governor invites leader of largest party in Parliament to form a government as premier

Bhutan

none; the monarch is hereditary, but democratic reforms in July 1998 give the National Assembly authority to remove the monarch with two-thirds vote

Bolivia

president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 1 June 1997 (next to be held June 2002)

Bosnia and Herzegovina

the three members of the presidency (one Bosniak, one Croat, one Serb) are elected by popular vote for a four-year term; the member with the most votes becomes the chairman unless he or she was the incumbent chairman at the time of the election; election last held 12-13 September 1998 (next to be held NA September 2002); the cochairmen of the Council of Ministers are appointed by the presidency

Botswana

president elected by the National Assembly for a five-year term; election last held 16 October 1999 (next to be held NA October 2004); vice president appointed by the president

Brazil

president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 4 October 1998 (next to be held NA October 2002)

British Indian Ocean Territory

none; the monarch is hereditary; commissioner and administrator appointed by the monarch

British Virgin Islands

none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; chief minister appointed by the governor from among the members of the Legislative Council

Brunei

none; the monarch is hereditary

Bulgaria

president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 27 October and 3 November 1996 (next to be held NA 2001); chairman of the Council of Ministers (prime minister) nominated by the president; deputy prime ministers nominated by the prime minister

Burkina Faso

president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; the president may serve unlimited terms; election last held 15 November 1998 (next to be held NA 2005); prime minister appointed by the president with the consent of the legislature

Burundi

NA; current president assumed power following a coup on 25 July 1996 in which former President NTIBANTUNGANYA was overthrown

Cambodia

none; the monarch is chosen by a Royal Throne Council; prime minister appointed by the monarch after a vote of confidence by the National Assembly

Cameroon

president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; election last held 12 October 1997 (next to be held NA October 2004); prime minister appointed by the president

Canada

none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister for a five-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party in the House of Commons is automatically designated by the governor general to become prime minister

Cape Verde

president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 18 February 1996 (next to be held NA February 2001); prime minister nominated by the National Assembly and appointed by the president

Cayman Islands

none; the monarch is hereditary; the governor is appointed by the monarch

Central African Republic

president elected by popular vote for a six-year term; election last held 19 September 1999 (next to be held NA 2005); prime minister appointed by the president

Chad

president elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms; if no candidate receives at least 50% of the total vote, the two candidates receiving the most votes must stand for a second round of voting; last held 2 June and 11 July 1996 (next to be held June 2001); prime minister appointed by the president

Chile

president elected by popular vote for a six-year term; election last held 12 December 1999, with runoff election held 16 January 2000 (next to be held NA December 2005)

China

president and vice president elected by the National People's Congress for five-year terms; elections last held 16-18 March 1998 (next to be held NA March 2003); premier nominated by the president, confirmed by the National People's Congress

Christmas Island

none; the monarch is hereditary; administrator appointed by the governor general of Australia and represents the monarch and Australia

Cocos (Keeling) Islands

none; the monarch is hereditary; administrator appointed by the governor general of Australia and represents the monarch and Australia

Colombia

president elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 31 May 1998 (next to be held NA May 2002); vice president elected by popular vote for a four-year term in a new procedure that replaces the traditional designation of vice presidents by newly elected presidents; election last held 31 May 1998 (next to be held NA May 2002)

Comoros

president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 6 and 16 March 1996 (next to be held NA); prime minister appointed by the president (Note: President AZALI claimed a one-year term at the time of the coup; elections, in theory, should be held in the spring of 2000 but are likely to be dependent on the island of Anjouan remaining part of the federation)

Congo, Democratic Republic of the

before Laurent Desire KABILA seized power, the president was elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; election last held 29 July 1984 (next was scheduled to be held in May 1997); formerly, the prime minister was elected by the High Council of the Republic; note - the term of the former government expired in 1991, elections were not held, and former President MOBUTU continued in office until his government was militarily defeated by KABILA on 17 May 1997

Congo, Republic of the

president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 16 August 1992 (next was to be held 27 July 1997 but will be delayed for several years pending the drafting of a new constitution)

Cook Islands

none; the monarch is hereditary; the UK representative is appointed by the monarch; the New Zealand high commissioner is appointed by the New Zealand Government; following legislative elections, the leader of the party that wins the most seats usually becomes prime minister (Note: ten years of rule by the Cook Islands Party (CIP) came to an end 18 November 1999 with the resignation of Prime Minister Joe WILLIAMS; WILLIAMS had led a minority government since October 1999 when the New Alliance Party (NAP) left the government coalition and joined the main opposition Democratic Alliance Party (DAP); on 18 November 1999, DAP leader Dr. Terepai MAOATE was sworn in as prime minister)

Costa Rica

president and vice presidents elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 1 February 1998 (next to be held 2 February 2002)

Cote d'Ivoire

prior to the coup, president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 22 October 1995 (next was scheduled to be held by October 2000); prime minister appointed by the president

Croatia

president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 7 February 2000 (next to be held NA 2005); prime minister appointed by the president

Cuba

president and vice president elected by the National Assembly; election last held 24 February 1998 (next election unscheduled)

Cyprus

president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 15 February 1998 (next to be held NA February 2003)

Czech Republic

president elected by Parliament for a five-year term; election last held 20 January 1998 (next to be held NA January 2003); prime minister appointed by the president

Denmark

none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch

Djibouti

president elected by popular vote for a six-year term; election last held 9 April 1999 (next to be held NA 2005); prime minister appointed by the president

Dominica

president elected by the House of Assembly for a five-year term; election last held 7 October 1998 (next to be held NA October 2003); prime minister appointed by the president

Dominican Republic

president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year term; election last held 16 May 1996, runoff election held 30 June 1996 (next to be held 16 May 2000)

Ecuador

president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year term (no reelection); election last held 31 May 1998; runoff election held 12 July 1998 (next to be held NA 2002)

Egypt

president nominated by the People's Assembly for a six-year term, the nomination must then be validated by a national, popular referendum; national referendum last held 26 September 1999 (next to be held NA October 2005); prime minister appointed by the president

El Salvador

president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 7 March 1999 (next to be held NA March 2004)

Equatorial Guinea

president elected by popular vote to a seven-year term; election last held 25 February 1996 (next to be held NA February 2003); prime minister and vice prime ministers appointed by the president

Eritrea

president elected by the National Assembly; election last held 8 June 1993 (next to be held NA)

Estonia

president elected by Parliament for a five-year term; if he or she does not secure two-thirds of the votes after three rounds of balloting, then an electoral assembly (made up of Parliament plus members of local governments) elects the president, choosing between the two candidates with the largest percentage of votes; election last held August-September 1996 (next to be held fall 2001); prime minister nominated by the president and approved by Parliament

Ethiopia

president elected by the House of People's Representatives for a six-year term; election last held NA June 1995 (next to be held NA May 2001); prime minister designated by the party in power following legislative elections

Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)

none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch

Faroe Islands

the monarch is hereditary; high commissioner appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the party that wins the most seats is usually elected prime minister by the Faroese Parliament; election last held 30 April 1998 (next to be held NA 2002)

Fiji

president elected by the Great Council of Chiefs for a five-year term; prime minister appointed by the president

Finland

president elected by popular vote for a six-year term; election last held 6 February 2000 (next to be held NA February 2006); prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed from the majority party by the president after parliamentary elections

France

president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; election last held 23 April and 7 May 1995 (next to be held by May 2002); prime minister nominated by the National Assembly majority and appointed by the president

French Guiana

French president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; prefect appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of Interior; presidents of the General and Regional Councils are appointed by the members of those councils

French Polynesia

French president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; high commissioner appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of Interior; president of the Territorial Government and the president of the Territorial Assembly are elected by the members of the assembly

Gabon

president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; election last held 6 December 1998 (next to be held NA 2005); prime minister appointed by the president

Gambia, The

the president is elected by popular vote for a five-year term; the number of terms is not restricted; election last held 26 September 1996 (next to be held NA 2001)

Georgia

president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 5 November 1995 (next to be held 9 April 2000)

Germany

president elected for a five-year term by a Federal Convention including all members of the Federal Assembly and an equal number of delegates elected by the Land Parliaments; election last held 23 May 1999 (next to be held 23 May 2004); chancellor elected by an absolute majority of the Federal Assembly for a four-year term; election last held 27 September 1998 (next to be held in the fall of 2002)

Ghana

president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 7 December 1996 (next to be held NA December 2000)

Gibraltar

none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; chief minister appointed by the governor

Greece

president elected by Parliament for a five-year term; election last held 8 February 2000 (next to be held by NA March 2005); prime minister appointed by the president

Greenland

the monarch is hereditary; high commissioner appointed by the monarch; prime minister is elected by Parliament (usually the leader of the majority party); election last held 11 March 1999 (next to be held NA 2003)

Grenada

none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; prime minister appointed by the governor general from among the members of the House of Assembly

Guadeloupe

French president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; prefect appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of Interior; the presidents of the General and Regional Councils are elected by the members of those councils

Guam

US president and vice president elected on the same ticket for a four-year term; governor and lieutenant governor elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 3 November 1998 (next to be held NA November 2002)

Guatemala

president elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 7 November 1999; runoff held 26 December 1999 (next to be held NA November 2003)

Guernsey

none; the monarch is hereditary; lieutenant governor appointed by the monarch; bailiff appointed by the monarch

Guinea

president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; candidate must receive a majority of the votes cast to be elected president; election last held 14 December 1998 (next to be held NA December 2003); the prime minister appointed by the president

Guinea-Bissau

president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 28 November 1999 and 16 January 2000 (next to be held NA 2004); prime minister appointed by the president after consultation with party leaders in the legislature

Guyana

president elected by the majority party in the National Assembly following legislative elections, which must be held at least every five years; elections last held 15 December 1997 (next to be held by January 2001); prime minister appointed by the president

Haiti

president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 17 December 1995 (next to be held by December 2000); prime minister appointed by the president, ratified by the Congress

Holy See (Vatican City)

pope elected for life by the College of Cardinals; election last held 16 October 1978 (next to be held after the death of the current pope); secretary of state appointed by the pope

Honduras

president elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 30 November 1997 (next to be held 30 November 2001)

Hong Kong

NA

Hungary

president elected by the National Assembly for a five-year term; election last held 19 June 1995 (next to be held before August 2000); prime minister elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president

Iceland

president elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 29 June 1996 (next to be held NA June 2000); prime minister appointed by the president

India

president elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament and the legislatures of the states for a five-year term; election last held 14 July 1997 (next to be held NA July 2002); vice president elected by both houses of Parliament for a five-year term; election last held 16 August 1997 (next to be held NA August 2002); prime minister elected by parliamentary members of the majority party following legislative elections; election last held NA October 1999 (next to be held NA October 2004)

Indonesia

president and vice president selected by vote of the People's Consultative Assembly for five-year terms; selection last held 20 October 1999 (next to be held by NA 2004)

Iran

leader of the Islamic Revolution appointed for life by the Assembly of Experts; president elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 23 May 1997 (next to be held NA May 2001)

Iraq

president and vice presidents elected by a two-thirds majority of the Revolutionary Command Council; election last held 17 October 1995 (next to be held NA 2002)

Ireland

president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; election last held 31 October 1997 (next to be held NA November 2004); prime minister nominated by the House of Representatives and appointed by the president

Israel

president elected by the Knesset for a five-year term; election last held 4 March 1998 (next to be held NA March 2003); prime minister elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 17 May 1999 (next to be held NA May 2003); note - in March 1992, the Knesset approved legislation, effective in 1996, which allowed for the direct election of the prime minister; under the new law, each voter casts two ballots - one for the direct election of the prime minister and one for a party in the Knesset; the candidate that receives the largest percentage of the popular vote then works to form a coalition with other parties to achieve a parliamentary majority of 61 seats; finally, the candidate must submit his or her cabinet to the Knesset for approval and this must be done within 45 days of the election; in contrast to the old system, under the new law, the prime minister's party need not be the single-largest party in the Knesset

Italy

president elected by an electoral college consisting of both houses of Parliament and 58 regional representatives for a seven-year term; election last held 13 May 1999 (next to be held NA May 2006); prime minister appointed by the president and confirmed by parliament

Jamaica

none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime minister; prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general

Japan

none; the monarch is hereditary; the Diet designates the prime minister; the constitution requires that the prime minister must command a parliamentary majority, therefore, following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition in the House of Representatives usually becomes prime minister (Note: on 3 April 2000, Prime Minister Keizo OBUCHI suffered a stroke and was relieved of his duties; Chief Cabinet Secretary Mikio AOKI became acting prime minister; on 5 April 2000, Yoshiro MORI was elected prime minister by a vote in both houses of the Diet, receiving 137 out of 244 votes cast in the House of Councillors ans 335 out of 488 votes cast in the House of Representatives)

Jersey

none; the monarch is hereditary; lieutenant governor and bailiff appointed by the monarch

Jordan

none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch

Kazakhstan

president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; election last held 10 January 1999, a year before it was previously scheduled (next to be held NA 2006); note - President NAZARBAYEV's previous term had been extended to 2000 by a nationwide referendum held 30 April 1995; prime minister and first deputy prime minister appointed by the president

Kenya

president elected by popular vote from among the members of the National Assembly for a five-year term; election last held 29 December 1997 (next to be held by early 2003); vice president appointed by the president

Kiribati

president elected by popular vote for a four-year term; note - the House of Assembly chooses the presidential candidates from among their members and then those candidates compete in a general election; election last held 27 November 1998 (next to be held by NA November 2002); vice president appointed by the president

Korea, North

premier elected by the Supreme People's Assembly; election last held NA 1998 (next to be held NA)

Korea, South

president elected by popular vote for a single five-year term; election last held 18 December 1997 (next to be held by 18 December 2002); prime minister appointed by the president; deputy prime ministers appointed by the president on the prime minister's recommendation

Kuwait

none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the monarch

Kyrgyzstan

president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; elections last held 24 December 1995 (next to be held November or December 2000); prime minister appointed by the president

Laos

president elected by the National Assembly for a five-year term; election last held 21 December 1997 (next to be held NA 2002); prime minister appointed by the president with the approval of the National Assembly for a five-year term

Latvia

president elected by Parliament for a four-year term (amended from a three-year term on 4 December 1997); election last held 17 June 1999 (next to be held by NA June 2003); prime minister appointed by the president

Lebanon

president elected by the National Assembly for a six-year term; election last held 15 October 1998 (next to be held NA 2004); prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the president in consultation with the National Assembly; by custom, the president is a Maronite Christian, the prime minister is a Sunni Muslim, and the speaker of the legislature is a Shi'a Muslim

Lesotho

none; according to the constitution, the leader of the majority party in the assembly automatically becomes prime minister; the monarch is hereditary, but, under the terms of the constitution which came into effect after the March 1993 election, the monarch is a "living symbol of national unity" with no executive or legislative powers; under traditional law the college of chiefs has the power to determine who is next in the line of succession, who shall serve as regent in the event that the successor is not of mature age, and may even depose the monarch

Liberia

president elected by popular vote for a six-year term (renewable); election last held 19 July 1997 (next to be held NA July 2003)

Libya

national elections are indirect through a hierarchy of people's committees; head of government elected by the General People's Congress; election last held NA (next to be held NA)

Liechtenstein

none; the monarch is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party in the Diet is usually appointed the head of government by the monarch and the leader of the largest minority party in the Diet is usually appointed the deputy head of government by the monarch

Lithuania

president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 21 December 1997 and 5 January 1998 (next to be held NA 2003); premier appointed by the president on the approval of the Parliament

Luxembourg

none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister and vice prime minister appointed by the monarch, following popular election to the Chamber of Deputies; they are responsible to the Chamber of Deputies (Note: government coalition - CSV and DP)

Macau

NA

Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of

president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 14 November 1999 (next to be held NA October 2004); prime minister appointed by the president

Madagascar

president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 29 December 1996 (next to be held NA 2002); prime minister appointed by the president from a list of candidates nominated by the National Assembly

Malawi

president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 15 June 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)

Malaysia

paramount ruler and deputy paramount ruler elected by and from the hereditary rulers of nine of the states for five-year terms; election last held 27 February 1999 (next to be held NA 2004); prime minister designated from among the members of the House of Representatives; following legislative elections, the leader of the party that wins a plurality of seats in the House of Representatives becomes prime minister

Maldives

president nominated by the Majlis and then that nomination must be ratified by a national referendum (at least a 51% approval margin is required); president elected for a five-year term; election last held 16 October 1998 (next to be held NA October 2003)

Mali

president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 11 May 1997 (next to be held NA May 2002); prime minister appointed by the president

Malta

president elected by the House of Representatives for a five-year term; election last held NA April 1999 (next to be held by NA April 2004); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president for a five-year term; the deputy prime minister is appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister

Man, Isle of

the monarch is hereditary; lieutenant governor appointed by the monarch for a five-year term; the Chief Minister is elected by the Tynwald; election last held 3 December 1996 (next to be held NA 2001)

Marshall Islands

president elected by Parliament from among its own members for a four-year term; election last held 15 November 1999 (next to be held NA November 2003)

Martinique

French president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; prefect appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of Interior; the presidents of the General and Regional Councils are elected by the members of those councils

Mauritania

president elected by popular vote for a six-year term; election last held 12 December 1997 (next to be held NA December 2003); prime minister appointed by the president

Mauritius

president and vice president elected by the National Assembly for five-year terms; election last held 28 June 1997 (next to be held NA 2002); prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the president and are responsible to the National Assembly

Mayotte

French president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; prefect appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of the Interior; president of the General Council elected by the members of the General Council for a six-year term

Mexico

president elected by popular vote for a six-year term; election last held 21 August 1994 (next to be held 2 July 2000)

Micronesia, Federated States of

president and vice president elected by Congress from among the four senators-at-large for four-year terms; election last held NA May 1999 (next to be held NA May 2003)

Moldova

president elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 17 November 1996; runoff election 1 December 1996 (next to be held NA November-December 2000); according to the Moldovan constitution, the president, on consulting with the parliament, will designate a candidate for the office of prime minister; within 15 days from designation, the prime minister-designate will request a vote of confidence from the parliament regarding his/her work program and entire cabinet

Monaco

none; the monarch is hereditary; minister of state appointed by the monarch from a list of three French national candidates presented by the French Government

Mongolia

president nominated by parties in the State Great Hural and elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 18 May 1997 (next to be held summer 2001); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by the State Great Hural; election last held 30 August 1999 (next to be held NA)

Montserrat

the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party usually becomes chief minister; note - as a result of the last election, a coalition party was formed between NPP, NDP, and one of the independent candidates

Morocco

none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch following legislative elections

Mozambique

president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 3-4 December 1999 (next to be held NA 2004); prime minister appointed by the president

Myanmar

none; the prime minister assumed power upon resignation of the former prime minister

Namibia

president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 30 November-1 December 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)

Nauru

president elected by Parliament for a three-year term; election last held 27 April 1999 (next to be held NA 2002)

Nepal

none; the monarch is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch

Netherlands

none; the monarch is hereditary; following Second Chamber elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch; vice prime ministers appointed by the monarch (Note: government coalition - PvdA, VVD, and D'66; there is also a Council of State composed of the monarch, heir apparent, and councilors consulted by the executive on legislative and administrative policy)

Netherlands Antilles

the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch for a six-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party is usually elected prime minister by the Staten; election last held 30 January 1998 (next to be held by NA 2002)

New Caledonia

French president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; high commissioner appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of Interior; president of the government elected by the members of the Territorial Congress

New Zealand

none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general for a three-year term; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general

Nicaragua

president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 20 October 1996 (next to be held NA October 2001); note - in July 1995 the term of the office of the president was amended to five years

Niger

president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; last held 24 November 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)

Nigeria

president is elected by popular vote for no more than two four-year terms; election last held 27 February 1999 (next to be held NA 2003)

Niue

the monarch is hereditary; premier elected by the Legislative Assembly for a three-year term; election last held 19 March 1999 (next to be held NA March 2002)

Norfolk Island

the monarch is hereditary; administrator appointed by the governor general of Australia; chief minister elected by the Legislative Assembly for a term of not more than three years; election last held 30 April 1997 (next to be held by May 2000)

Northern Mariana Islands

US president and vice president elected on the same ticket for four-year terms; governor and lieutenant governor elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held in NA November 1997 (next to be held NA November 2001)

Norway

none; the monarch is hereditary; following parliamentary elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch with the approval of the Parliament

Oman

none; the monarch is hereditary

Pakistan

president elected by Parliament for a five-year term; election last held 31 December 1997 (next to be held NA 2002); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by the National Assembly; election last held 3 February 1997 (next to be held NA); note - Gen. Pervez MUSHARRAF overthrew the government of Prime Minister Mohammad Nawaz SHARIF in the military takeover of 12 October 1999; in May 2000, the Supreme Court validated the October 1999 coup and set a three-year limit in office for Chief Executive MUSHARRAF

Palau

president and vice president elected on separate tickets by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 11 November 1996 (next to be held NA November 2000)

Panama

president and vice presidents elected on the same ticket by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 2 May 1999 (next to be held NA May 2004)

Papua New Guinea

none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the National Executive Council; prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general for up to five years on the basis of majority support in National Parliament

Paraguay

president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 10 May 1998 (next to be held NA May 2003)

Peru

president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 9 April 1995 (next to be held 9 April 2000)

Philippines

president and vice president elected on separate tickets by popular vote for six-year terms; election last held 11 May 1998 (next to be held 11 May 2004)

Pitcairn Islands

the monarch is hereditary; high commissioner and commissioner appointed by the monarch; island magistrate elected by popular vote for a three-year term; last known election held NA December 1993 (next was to be held NA December 1996)

Poland

president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election first round held 5 November 1995, second round held 19 November 1995 (next to be held NA November 2000); prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the Sejm

Portugal

president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 14 January 1996 (next to be held NA January 2001); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president

Puerto Rico

US president and vice president elected on the same ticket for four-year terms; governor elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 5 November 1996 (next to be held 7 November 2000)

Qatar

none; the monarch is hereditary; note - in March 1999 Qatar held elections for representatives to its Central Municipal Council

Reunion

French president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; prefect appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of the Interior; the presidents of the General and Regional Councils are elected by the members of those councils

Romania

president elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 3 November 1996, with runoff between the top two candidates held 17 November 1996 (next to be held NA November/December 2000); prime minister appointed by the president

Russia

president elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 26 March 2000 (next to be held NA 2004); note - no vice president; if the president dies in office, cannot exercise his powers because of ill health, is impeached, or resigns, the premier succeeds him; the premier serves as acting president until a new presidential election is held, which must be within three months; premier appointed by the president with the approval of the Duma

Rwanda

normally the president is elected by popular vote for a five-year term; special election for new president by deputies of the National Assembly and governmental ministers held 17 April 2000 (next regular election to be held NA 2002); prime minister is appointed by the president

Saint Helena

none; the monarch is hereditary; governor is appointed by the monarch

Saint Kitts and Nevis

none; the monarch is hereditary; the governor general is appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general

Saint Lucia

none; the monarch is hereditary; the governor general is appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general

Saint Pierre and Miquelon

French president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; prefect appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of Interior; president of the General Council is elected by the members of the council

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

none; the monarch is hereditary; the governor general is appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister

Samoa

upon the death of Chief Susuga MALIETOA Tanumafili II, a new chief of state will be elected by the Legislative Assembly to serve a five-year term; prime minister appointed by the chief of state with the approval of the Legislative Assembly

San Marino

cochiefs of state (captain regents) elected by the Great and General Council for a six-month term; election last held NA September 1999 (next to be held NA March 2000); secretary of state for foreign and political affairs elected by the Great and General Council for a five-year term; election last held NA June 1998 (next to be held NA June 2003)

Sao Tome and Principe

president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 30 June and 21 July 1996 (next to be held NA July 2001); prime minister chosen by the National Assembly and approved by the president

Saudi Arabia

none; the monarch is hereditary

Senegal

president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; election last held 27 February 2000 (next to be held 27 February 2007); prime minister appointed by the president

Serbia and Montenegro

president elected by the Federal Assembly for a four-year term; election last held 23 July 1997 (next to be held NA 2001); prime minister appointed by the president

Seychelles

president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 20-22 March 1998 (next to be held by NA 2003)

Sierra Leone

president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election held 26-27 February and 15 March 1996 (next to be held NA 2001); note - president's tenure of office is limited to two five-year terms

Singapore

president elected by popular vote for a six-year term; election last held 28 August 1999 (next to be held NA August 2005); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president; deputy prime ministers appointed by the president

Slovakia

president elected by direct popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 30 May 1999 (next to be held NA 2004); note - following the National Council elections in September 1998, the Constitution was changed to allow direct election of the president; following National Council elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president

Slovenia

president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 24 November 1997 (next to be held NA 2002); following National Assembly elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually nominated to become prime minister by the president and elected by the National Assembly; election last held 10 November 1996 (next to be held NA November 2000)

Solomon Islands

none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of Parliament for up to five years; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by Parliament; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister from among the members of Parliament

South Africa

president elected by the National Assembly for a five-year term; election last held 2 June 1999 (next scheduled for sometime between May and July 2004)

Spain

the monarch is hereditary; president proposed by the monarch and elected by the National Assembly following legislative elections; election last held 12 March 2000 (next to be held NA 2004); vice presidents appointed by the monarch on proposal of the president

Sri Lanka

president elected by popular vote for a six-year term; election last held 21 December 1999 (next to be held NA December 2005)

Sudan

president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 6-17 March 1996 (next to be held NA 2001)

Suriname

president and vice president elected by the National Assembly or, if no presidential or vice presidential candidate receives a constitutional majority vote in the National Assembly after two votes, by the larger People's Assembly (869 representatives from the national, local, and regional councils), for five-year terms; election last held 23 May 1996; runoff election held 5 September 1996 (next to be held NA May 2000) (Note: widespread demonstrations during the summer of 1999 led to the calling of elections a year early)

Svalbard

none; the monarch is hereditary; governor and assistant governor responsible to the Polar Department of the Ministry of Justice

Swaziland

none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch

Sweden

the monarch is hereditary; prime minister elected by the Parliament; election last held NA September 1998 (next to be held NA 2002)

Switzerland

president and vice president elected by the Federal Assembly from among the members of the Federal Council for one-year terms that run concurrently; election last held NA December 1999 (next to be held NA December 2000)

Syria

president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; referendum/election last held 8 February 1999 (next to be held NA 2006); vice presidents appointed by the president; prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president

Taiwan

president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 18 March 2000 (next to be held NA March 2004); premier appointed by the president; vice premiers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the premier

Tajikistan

president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; election last held 6 November 1999 (next to be held NA 2006); prime minister appointed by the president

Tanzania

president and vice president elected on the same ballot by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 29 October-19 November 1995 (next to be held 29 October 2000); prime minister appointed by the president

Thailand

none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister designated from among the members of the House of Representatives; following a national election for the House of Representatives, the leader of the party that can organize a majority coalition usually becomes prime minister

Togo

president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 21 June 1998 (next to be held NA 2003); prime minister appointed by the president

Tokelau

none; the monarch is hereditary; administrator appointed by the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade in New Zealand; the head of government is chosen from the Council of Faipule and serves a one-year term

Tonga

none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed for life by the monarch

Trinidad and Tobago

president elected by an electoral college, which consists of the members of the Senate and House of Representatives, for a five-year term; election last held NA November 1995 (next to be held by November 2000); prime minister appointed from among the members of Parliament; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party in the House of Representatives is usually appointed prime minister

Tunisia

president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 24 October 1999 (next to be held NA 2004); prime minister appointed by the president

Turkmenistan

president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 21 June 1992 (next scheduled to be held NA); note - President NIYAZOV was unanimously approved as president for life by the Assembly on 28 December 1999); deputy chairmen of the cabinet of ministers are appointed by the president

Turks and Caicos Islands

none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; chief minister appointed by the governor

Tuvalu

the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime minister; prime minister and deputy prime minister elected by and from the members of Parliament; election last held 27 April 1999 (next to be held NA 2002)

Uganda

president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 9 May 1996 (next to be held by 31 May 2001); note - first popular election for president since independence in 1962 was held in 1996; prime minister appointed by the president

Ukraine

president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 31 October and 14 November 1999 (next to be held NA 2004); prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president and approved by the People's Council

United Arab Emirates

president and vice president elected by the FSC (a group of seven electors) for five-year terms; election last held NA October 1996 (next to be held NA 2001); prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the president

United Kingdom

none; the monarch is hereditary; the prime minister is the leader of the majority party in the House of Commons (assuming there is no majority party, a prime minister would have a majority coalition or at least a coalition that was not rejected by the majority)

United States

president and vice president elected on the same ticket by a college of representatives who are elected directly from each state; president and vice president serve four-year terms; election last held 5 November 1996 (next to be held 7 November 2000)

Uruguay

president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 31 October 1999 with run-off election on 28 November 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)

Uzbekistan

president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 9 January 2000 (next to be held NA January 2005); note - extension of President KARIMOV's original term for an additional five years overwhelmingly approved - 99.6% of total vote in favor - by national referendum held 26 March 1995); prime minister and deputy ministers appointed by the president

Vanuatu

president elected by an electoral college consisting of Parliament and the presidents of the regional councils for a five-year term; election for president last held 25 March 1999 (next to be held NA 2004); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by Parliament from among its members; election for prime minister last held 6 March 1998 (next to be held NA 2002)

Venezuela

president elected by popular vote for a six-year term; election last held 6 December 1998 (next to be held 28 May 2000 under new constitution)

Vietnam

president elected by the National Assembly from among its members for a five-year term; election last held 25 September 1997 (next to be held when National Assembly meets following legislative elections in NA 2002); prime minister appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly; deputy prime ministers appointed by the prime minister

Virgin Islands

US president and vice president elected on the same ticket for four-year terms; governor and lieutenant governor elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 3 November 1998 (next to be held NA November 2002)

Wallis and Futuna

French president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; high administrator appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of the Interior; the presidents of the Territorial Government and the Territorial Assembly are elected by the members of the assembly

Yemen

president elected by direct, popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 23 September 1999 (next to be held NA 2004); vice president appointed by the president; prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president

Zambia

president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 18 November 1996 (next to be held NA October 2001); vice president appointed by the president

Zimbabwe

president nominated by the House of Assembly for a six-year term (if more than one nomination, an electoral college consisting of members of the House of Assembly elects the president); election last held 16-17 March 1996 (next to be held NA March 2002); co-vice presidents appointed by the president
 

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