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Executive branch / head of government

This page shows the value of the Executive branch / head of government information field for all countries in the Country Guide.

Notes on this field are available at the Information Field Notes page.

Albania

Prime Minister Ilir META (since 29 October 1999)

Algeria

Prime Minister Ahmed BENBITOUR (since 2 December 1999)

American Samoa

Governor Tauese P. SUNIA (since 3 January 1997) and Lieutenant Governor Togiola TULAFONO (since 3 January 1997)

Andorra

Executive Council President Marc FORNE Molne (since 21 December 1994)

Angola

President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since January 1999); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

Anguilla

Chief Minister Hubert HUGHES (since 16 March 1994)

Antigua and Barbuda

Prime Minister Lester Bryant BIRD (since 8 March 1994)

Argentina

President Fernando DE LA RUA (since 10 December 1999); Vice President Carlos Alberto ALVAREZ (since 10 December 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Armenia

Prime Minister Aram SARKISYAN (since 3 November 1999)

Aruba

Prime Minister Jan (Henny) H. EMAN (since 29 July 1994) and Deputy Prime Minister Dr. Lili BEKE-MARTINEZ (since NA)

Australia

Prime Minister John Winston HOWARD (since 11 March 1996); Deputy Prime Minister John ANDERSON (since NA)

Austria

Chancellor Wolfgang SCHUESSEL (OeVP)(since 4 February 2000); Vice Chancellor Susanne RIESS-PASSER (FPOe) (since 4 February 2000)

Azerbaijan

Prime Minister Artur RASIZADE (since 26 November 1996)

Bahamas, The

Prime Minister Hubert Alexander INGRAHAM (since 19 August 1992) and Deputy Prime Minister Frank WATSON (since December 1994)

Bahrain

Prime Minister KHALIFA bin Salman Al Khalifa (since NA 1971)

Bangladesh

Prime Minister Sheikh HASINA Wajed (since 23 June 1996)

Barbados

Prime Minister Owen Seymour ARTHUR (since 6 September 1994); Deputy Prime Minister Billie MILLER (since 6 September 1994)

Belarus

Prime Minister Sergey LING (acting since 18 November 1996, confirmed 19 February 1997); First Deputy Prime Minister Vasiliy DOLGOLEV (since 2 December 1998); Deputy Prime Ministers Vladimir ZAMETALIN (since 15 July 1997), Ural LATYPOV (since 30 December 1997), Gennadiy NOVITSKIY (since 11 February 1997), Leonid KOZIK (since 4 February 1997), Aleksandr POPKOV (since 10 November 1998)

Belgium

Prime Minister Guy VERHOFSTADT (since 13 July 1999)

Belize

Prime Minister Said MUSA (since 27 August 1998); Deputy Prime Minister John BRICENO (since 1 September 1998)

Benin

President Mathieu KEREKOU (since 4 April 1996); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Bermuda

Premier Jennifer SMITH (since 10 November 1998)

Bhutan

Foreign Minister Jigme Yoeser THINLEY (since NA June 1998)

Bolivia

President Hugo BANZER Suarez (since 6 August 1997); Vice President Jorge Fernando QUIROGA Ramirez (since 6 August 1997); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Bosnia and Herzegovina

vacant; note - in February 2000, the Supreme Court ruled that the structure of the Council of Ministers was unconstitutional; a new structure is being negotiated

Botswana

President Festus MOGAE (since 1 April 1998) and Vice President Seretse Ian KHAMA (since NA April 1998); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; vice president KHAMA is on a one-year leave of absence, effective 1 January 2000, but retains the title of vice president

Brazil

President Fernando Henrique CARDOSO (since 1 January 1995); Vice President Marco MACIEL (since 1 January 1995); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

British Indian Ocean Territory

Commissioner David Ross MACLENNAN (since NA 1994); Administrator Don CAIRNS (since NA); note - both reside in the UK

British Virgin Islands

Chief Minister Ralph T. O'NEAL (since 15 May 1995; appointed after the death of former Chief Minister H. Lavity STOUTT)

Brunei

Sultan and Prime Minister His Majesty Paduka Seri Baginda Sultan Haji HASSANAL Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah (since 5 October 1967); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government

Bulgaria

Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Prime Minister) Ivan KOSTOV (since 19 May 1997); Deputy Prime Minister Petur ZHOTEV (since 21 December 1999)

Burkina Faso

Prime Minister Kadre Desire OUEDRAOGO (since 6 February 1996)

Burundi

President Pierre BUYOYA (interim president since 27 September 1996, officially sworn in 11 June 1998), First Vice President Frederic BAMVUGINYUMVIRA (since NA May 1998), Second Vice President Mathias SINAMENYA (since NA May 1998); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

Cambodia

Prime Minister HUN SEN (since 30 November 1998)

Cameroon

Prime Minister Peter Mafany MUSONGE (since 19 September 1996)

Canada

Prime Minister Jean CHRETIEN (since 4 November 1993)

Cape Verde

Prime Minister Carlos Alberto Wahnon de Carvalho VEIGA (since 13 January 1991)

Cayman Islands

Governor and President of the Executive Council Peter SMITH (since 5 May 1999)

Central African Republic

Prime Minister Anicet Georges DOLOGUELE (since 4 January 1999)

Chad

Prime Minister Nagdum YAMASSOUM (since 13 December 1999)

Chile

President Ricardo LAGOS Escobar (since 11 March 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

China

Premier ZHU Rongji (since 18 March 1998); Vice Premiers QIAN Qichen (since 29 March 1993), LI Lanqing (29 March 1993), WU Bangguo (since 17 March 1995), and WEN Jiabao (since 18 March 1998)

Christmas Island

Administrator (acting) Graham NICHOLLS (since NA)

Cocos (Keeling) Islands

Administrator (acting) Maureen ELLIS (since NA)

Colombia

President Andres PASTRANA (since 7 August 1998); Vice President Gustavo BELL Lemus (since 7 August 1998); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Comoros

Prime Minister Bianrifi TARMIDI (since 2 December 1999)

Congo, Democratic Republic of the

Laurent Desire KABILA (since 17 May 1997); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

Congo, Republic of the

President Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO (since 25 October 1997, following the civil war in which he toppled elected president Pascal LISSOUBA); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Cook Islands

Prime Minister Dr. Terepai MAOATE (since 18 November 1999); Deputy Prime Minister Norman GEORGE (since NA)

Costa Rica

President Miguel Angel RODRIGUEZ (since 8 May 1998); First Vice President Astrid FISCHEL Volio (since 8 May 1998), Second Vice President Elizabeth ODIO Benito (since 8 May 1998); note - president is both the chief of state and head of government

Cote d'Ivoire

Gen. Robert GUEI (since 25 December 1999); note - took power following a military coup against the government of former President Henri Konan BEDIE; president is both chief of state and head of government

Croatia

Prime Minister Ivica RACAN (since 27 January 2000); Deputy Prime Ministers Goran GRANIC (since NA February 2000), Zeljka ANTUNOVIC (since NA February 2000), Slavko LINIC (since NA February 2000)

Cuba

President of the Council of State and President of the Council of Ministers Fidel CASTRO Ruz (prime minister from February 1959 until 24 February 1976 when office was abolished; president since 2 December 1976); First Vice President of the Council of State and First Vice President of the Council of Ministers Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz (since 2 December 1976); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Cyprus

President Glafcos CLERIDES (since 28 February 1993); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; post of vice president is currently vacant; under the 1960 constitution, the post is reserved for a Turkish Cypriot

Czech Republic

Prime Minister Milos ZEMAN (since 17 July 1998); Deputy Prime Ministers Vladimir SPIDLA (since 17 July 1998), Pavel RYCHETSKY (since 17 July 1998), Pavel MERTLIK (since 17 July 1998), Jan KAZAN (since 8 December 1999)

Denmark

Prime Minister Poul Nyrup RASMUSSEN (since 25 January 1993)

Djibouti

Prime Minister BARKAT Gourad Hamadou (since 30 September 1978)

Dominica

Prime Minister Roosevelt DOUGLAS (since 2 February 2000)

Dominican Republic

President Leonel FERNANDEZ Reyna (since 16 August 1996); Vice President Jaime David FERNANDEZ Mirabal (since 16 August 1996); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Ecuador

President Gustavo NOBOA (since 22 January 2000) following coup which deposed President MAHUAD; Vice President Pedro PINTO (since 28 January 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Egypt

Prime Minister Atef OBEID (since 5 October 1999)

El Salvador

President Francisco FLORES Perez (since 1 June 1999); Vice President Carlos QUINTANILLA Schmidt (since 1 June 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Equatorial Guinea

Prime Minister Serafin Seriche DOUGAN (since NA April 1996); First Vice Prime Minister and Agriculture Minister Miguel OYONO NDONG (since NA January 1998); Second Vice Prime Minister for Internal Affairs Demetrio Elo NDONG NZE FUMU (since NA January 1998)

Eritrea

President ISAIAS Afworki (since 8 June 1993); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Estonia

Prime Minister Mart LAAR (since 29 March 1999)

Ethiopia

Prime Minister MELES Zenawi (since NA August 1995)

Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)

Governor Donald LAMONT (since NA May 1999); Chief Executive A. M. GURR (since NA); Financial Secretary D. F. HOWATT (since NA)

Faroe Islands

Prime Minister Anfinn KALLSBERG (since 9 May 1998)

Fiji

Prime Minister Mahendra CHAUDHRY (since 18 May 1999); Deputy Prime Ministers Tupeni BABA (since NA 1999) and Adi Kuini Vuikaba SPEED (since NA 1999)

Finland

Prime Minister Paavo LIPPONEN (since 13 April 1995) and Deputy Prime Minister Sauli NIINISTO (since 13 April 1995)

France

Prime Minister Lionel JOSPIN (since 3 June 1997)

French Guiana

President of the General Council Andre LECANTE (since NA March 1998); President of the Regional Council Antoine KARAM (since 22 March 1992)

French Polynesia

President of the Territorial Government of French Polynesia Gaston FLOSSE (since 4 April 1991); President of the Territorial Assembly Justin ARAPARI (since 13 May 1996)

Gabon

Prime Minister Jean-Francois NTOUTOUME-EMANE (since 23 January 1999)

Gambia, The

President Yahya A. J. J. JAMMEH (since 18 October 1996); Vice President Isatou Njie SAIDY (since 20 March 1997); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Georgia

President Eduard Amvrosiyevich SHEVARDNADZE (previously elected chairman of the Government Council 10 March 1992, Council has since been disbanded; previously elected chairman of Parliament 11 October 1992; president since 26 November 1995); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Germany

Chancellor Gerhard SCHROEDER (since 27 October 1998)

Ghana

President Jerry John RAWLINGS (since 7 January 1993); Vice President John Evans Atta MILLS (since 7 January 1993); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Gibraltar

Chief Minister Peter CARUANA (since 17 May 1996)

Greece

Prime Minister Konstandinos SIMITIS (since 19 January 1996)

Greenland

Prime Minister Jonathan MOTZFELDT (since NA September 1997)

Grenada

Prime Minister Keith MITCHELL (since 22 June 1995)

Guadeloupe

President of the General Council Marcellin LUBETH (since NA March 1998); President of the Regional Council Lucette MICHAUX-CHEVRY (since 22 March 1992)

Guam

Governor Carl GUTIERREZ (since 8 November 1994) and Lieutenant Governor Madeleine BORDALLO (since 8 November 1994)

Guatemala

President Alfonso Antonio PORTILLO Cabreras (since 14 January 2000); Vice President Juan Francisco REYES Lopez (since 14 January 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Guernsey

Lieutenant Governor Sir John COWARD (since NA 1994) and Bailiff De Vic G. CAREY (since NA)

Guinea

Prime Minister Lamine SIDIME (since 8 March 1999)

Guinea-Bissau

Prime Minister Caetana N'TCHAMA (since NA February 2000)

Guyana

Prime Minister Samuel HINDS (since NA December 1997)

Haiti

Prime Minister Jacques-Edouard ALEXIS (since NA March 1999); ALEXIS was appointed by President PREVAL, filling the post that had been vacant since the resignation of Rosny SMARTH in June 1997

Holy See (Vatican City)

Secretary of State Cardinal Angelo SODANO (since 2 December 1990)

Honduras

President Carlos Roberto FLORES Facusse (since 27 January 1998); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Hong Kong

Chief Executive TUNG Chee-hwa (since 1 July 1997)

Hungary

Prime Minister Viktor ORBAN (since 6 July 1998)

Iceland

Prime Minister David ODDSSON (since 30 April 1991)

India

Prime Minister Atal Behari VAJPAYEE (since 19 March 1998)

Indonesia

President Abdurrahman WAHID (since 20 October 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Iran

President (Ali) Mohammad KHATAMI-Ardakani (since 3 August 1997); First Vice President Hasan Ebrahim HABIBI (since NA August 1989)

Iraq

Prime Minister SADDAM Husayn (since 29 May 1994); Deputy Prime Minister Tariq Mikhail AZIZ (since NA 1979); Deputy Prime Minister Taha Yasin RAMADAN (since NA May 1994); Deputy Prime Minister Muhammad Hamza al-ZUBAYDI (since NA May 1994)

Ireland

Prime Minister Bertie AHERN (since 26 June 1997)

Israel

Prime Minister Ehud BARAK (since 6 July 1999)

Italy

Prime Minister (referred to in Italy as the president of the Council of Ministers) Massimo D'ALEMA (since 21 October 1998)

Jamaica

Prime Minister Percival James PATTERSON (since 30 March 1992) and Deputy Prime Minister Seymour MULLINGS (since NA 1993)

Japan

Prime Minister Yoshiro MORI (since 5 April 2000)

Jersey

Lieutenant Governor and Commander in Chief Sir Michael WILKES (since NA 1995) and Bailiff Philip Martin BAILHACHE (since NA 1995)

Jordan

Prime Minister Abdur-Rauf RAWABDEH (since 4 March 1999)

Kazakhstan

Prime Minister Kazymzhomart TOKAYEV (since 2 October 1999)

Kenya

President Daniel Toroitich arap MOI (since 14 October 1978); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Kiribati

President Teburoro TITO (since 1 October 1994); Vice President Tewareka TENTOA (since 12 October 1994); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Korea, North

Premier HONG Song-nam (since 5 September 1998)

Korea, South

Prime Minister PAK Tae-chun (since 10 January 2000)

Kuwait

Prime Minister and Crown Prince SAAD al-Abdallah al-Salim Al Sabah (since 8 February 1978); First Deputy Prime Minister SABAH al-Ahmad al-Jabir Al Sabah (since 17 October 1992); Second Deputy Prime Minister SALIM al-Sabah al-Salim Al Sabah (since 7 October 1996)

Kyrgyzstan

Prime Minister Jumabek IBRAIMOV (since NA December 1998)

Laos

Prime Minister SISAVAT Keobounphan (since 26 February 1998); Senior Deputy Prime Minister BOUN-NHANG Vorachith (since 20 April 1996); Deputy Prime Ministers CHOUMMALI Saygnasone (since 26 February 1998), SOMSAVAT Lengsavad (since 26 February 1998)

Latvia

Prime Minister Andris BERZINS (since 5 May 2000)

Lebanon

Prime Minister Salim al-HUSS (since 4 December 1998)

Lesotho

Prime Minister Pakalitha MOSISILI (since 23 May 1998)

Liberia

President Charles Ghankay TAYLOR (since 2 August 1997); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Libya

Secretary of the General People's Committee (Premier) Mubarak al-SHAMEKH (since 2 March 2000)

Liechtenstein

Head of Government Mario FRICK (since 15 December 1993) and Deputy Head of Government Michael RITTER (since 2 February 1997)

Lithuania

Premier Andrius KUBILIUS (since 12 November 1999)

Luxembourg

Prime Minister Jean-Claude JUNCKER (since 1 January 1995) and Vice Prime Minister Lydie POLFER (since 7 August 1999)

Macau

Chief Executive Edmund HO Hau-wah (since 20 December 1999)

Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of

Prime Minister Ljubco GEORGIEVSKI (since 30 November 1998)

Madagascar

Prime Minister Tantely Rene Gabriot ANDRIANARIVO (since NA 1998)

Malawi

President Bakili MULUZI (since 21 May 1994); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Malaysia

Prime Minister Dr. MAHATHIR bin Mohamad (since 16 July 1981); Deputy Prime Minister ABDULLAH bin Ahmad Badawi (since 8 January 1999)

Maldives

President Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM (since 11 November 1978); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Mali

Prime Minister Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA (since March 1994)

Malta

Prime Minister Eddie FENECH ADAMI (since 6 September 1998); Deputy Prime Minister Lawrence GONZE (since 4 May 1999)

Man, Isle of

Chief Minister Donald GELLING (since 3 December 1996)

Marshall Islands

President Kessai Hesa NOTE (since 3 January 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Martinique

President of the General Council Claude LISE (since 22 March 1992); President of the Regional Council Alfred MARIE-JEANNE (since NA March 1998)

Mauritania

Prime Minister Cheikel Afia Ould Mohamed KHOUNA (since 16 November 1998)

Mauritius

Prime Minister Navinchandra RAMGOOLAM (since 27 December 1995)

Mayotte

President of the General Council Younoussa BAMANA (since NA 1977)

Mexico

President Ernesto ZEDILLO Ponce de Leon (since 1 December 1994); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Micronesia, Federated States of

President Leo A. FALCAM (since NA May 1999); Vice President Redley KILLION (since NA May 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Moldova

Prime Minister Dumitru BRAGHIS (since 21 December 1999), one first deputy prime minister and two deputy prime ministers

Monaco

Minister of State Michel LEVEQUE (since 3 February 1997)

Mongolia

Prime Minister Rinchinnyamin AMARJARGAL (since 30 August 1999)

Montserrat

Chief Minister David BRANDT (since 22 August 1997)

Morocco

Prime Minister Abderrahmane YOUSSOUFI (since 14 March 1998)

Mozambique

Prime Minister Pascoal MOCUMBI (since NA December 1994)

Myanmar

Prime Minister and Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Gen. THAN SHWE (since 23 April 1992); note - the prime minister is both the chief of state and head of government

Namibia

President Samuel NUJOMA (since 21 March 1990); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Nauru

President Rene HARRIS (since NA 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Nepal

Prime Minister Krishna Prasad BHATTARAI (since NA May 1999)

Netherlands

Prime Minister Wim KOK (since 22 August 1994) and Vice Prime Ministers Annemarie JORRITSMA (since 3 August 1998) and Els BORST-EILERS (since 3 August 1998)

Netherlands Antilles

Prime Minister Miguel POURIER (since 8 November 1999)

New Caledonia

President of the Government Jean LEQUES (since 28 May 1999)

New Zealand

Prime Minister Helen CLARK (since 10 December 1999) and Deputy Prime Minister Jim ANDERTON (since 10 December 1999)

Nicaragua

President Arnoldo ALEMAN Lacayo (10 January 1997); Vice President Enrique BOLANOS Geyer (10 January 1997); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

Niger

President Mamadou TANDJA (since 22 December 1999); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government; Prime Minister Hama AMADOU (since 31 December 1999) was appointed by the president and shares some executive responsibilities with the president (Note: President Ibrahim BARE was assassinated on 9 April 1999; subsequent elections held under the nine-month provisional government of Major Daouda Mallam WANKE)

Nigeria

President Olusegun OBASANJO (since 29 May 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Niue

Premier Sani LAKATANI (since 1 April 1999)

Norfolk Island

Assembly President and Chief Minister George Charles SMITH (since 30 April 1997)

Northern Mariana Islands

Governor Pedro P. TENORIO (since NA January 1998) and Lieutenant Governor Jesus R. SABLAN (since NA January 1998)

Norway

Prime Minister Jens STOLTENBERG (since 17 March 2000)

Oman

Sultan and Prime Minister QABOOS bin Said Al Said (since 23 July 1970); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government

Pakistan

Chief Executive Gen. Pervez MUSHARRAF (since 12 October 1999)

Palau

President Kuniwo NAKAMURA (since 1 January 1993) and Vice President Tommy E. REMENGESAU Jr. (since 1 January 1993); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Panama

President Mireya Elisa MOSCOSO Rodriguez (since 1 September 1999); First Vice President Arturo Ulises VALLARINO (since 1 September 1999); Second Vice President (Dominador) Kaiser Baldonero BAZAN (since 1 September 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Papua New Guinea

Prime Minister Mekere MORAUTA (since NA August 1999); Deputy Prime Minister Mao ZEMING (since NA December 1999)

Paraguay

President Luis GONZALEZ Macchi (since 28 March 1999); vice president (vacant); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Peru

President Alberto Kenyo FUJIMORI Fujimori (since 28 July 1990); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; additionally there are two vice presidents (Note: Prime Minister Alberto BUSTAMANTE (since 13 October 1999) does not exercise executive power; this power is in the hands of the president)

Philippines

President Joseph Ejercito ESTRADA (since 30 June 1998) and Vice President Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO (since 30 June 1998); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Pitcairn Islands

Island Magistrate and Chairman of the Island Council Jay WARREN (since NA)

Poland

Prime Minister Jerzy BUZEK (since 31 October 1997), Deputy Prime Ministers Leszek BALCEROWICZ (since 31 October 1997), Longin KOMOLOWSKI (since 19 October 1999)

Portugal

Prime Minister Antonio Manuel de Oliviera GUTERRES (since 28 October 1995)

Puerto Rico

Governor Pedro ROSSELLO (since 2 January 1993)

Qatar

Prime Minister ABDALLAH bin Khalifa Al Thani, brother of the monarch (since 30 October 1996); Deputy Prime Minister MUHAMMAD bin Khalifa Al Thani, brother of the monarch (since 20 January 1998)

Reunion

President of the General Council Jean-Luc POUDROUX (since NA March 1998) and President of the Regional Council Paul VERGES (since NA March 1993)

Romania

Prime Minister Mugur ISARESCU (since 22 December 1998)

Russia

Acting Premier Mikhail Mikhaylovich KASYANOV (since 7 May 2000); Deputy Premiers Viktor Borisovich KHRISTENKO (since 31 May 1999), Ilya Iosifovich KLEBANOV (since 31 May 1999), Nikolay Pavlovich KOSHMAN (since 15 October 1999), Valentina Ivanovna MATVIYENKO (since 22 September 1998), Valdimir Nikolayevich SHCHERBAK (since 25 May 1999), Sergey Kuzhugetovich SHOYGU (since 10 January 2000)

Rwanda

Prime Minister Bernard MAKUZA (since 8 March 2000)

Saint Helena

Governor and Commander in Chief David HOLLAMBY (since NA June 1999)

Saint Kitts and Nevis

Prime Minister Dr. Denzil DOUGLAS (since 6 July 1995) and Deputy Prime Minister Sam CONDOR (since 6 July 1995)

Saint Lucia

Prime Minister Kenneth ANTHONY (since 24 May 1997) and Deputy Prime Minister Mario MICHEL (since 24 May 1997)

Saint Pierre and Miquelon

President of the General Council Bernard LE SOAVEC (since NA 1996)

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Prime Minister James F. MITCHELL (since 30 July 1984)

Samoa

Prime Minister TUILA'EPA Sailele Malielegaoi (since 24 November 1998); note - TUILA'EPA served as deputy prime minister since 1992; he assumed the prime ministership in November 1998 when former Prime Minister TOFILAU Eti Alesana resigned in poor health; the post of deputy prime minister is currently vacant

San Marino

Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs Gabriele GATTI (since NA July 1986)

Sao Tome and Principe

Prime Minister Guilherma Posser da COSTA (since 30 December 1998)

Saudi Arabia

King and Prime Minister FAHD bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (since 13 June 1982); Crown Prince and First Deputy Prime Minister ABDALLAH bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (half-brother to the monarch, heir to the throne since 13 June 1982, regent from 1 January to 22 February 1996); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government

Senegal

Prime Minister Niasse MOUSTAPHA (since NA 2000)

Serbia and Montenegro

Prime Minister Momir BULATOVIC (since 20 May 1998); Deputy Prime Ministers Nikola SAINOVIC (since 15 September 1995), Jovan ZEBIC (since 9 April 1998), and Vladan KUTLESIC (since 20 March 1997), Danilo VUKSANOVIC (since 20 May 1998), Tomislav NIKOLIC (since 12 August 1999), Maja Gojkovic (since 12 August 1999)

Seychelles

President France Albert RENE (since 5 June 1977); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Sierra Leone

President Ahmad Tejan KABBAH (since 29 March 1996, reinstated 10 March 1998); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Singapore

Prime Minister GOH Chok Tong (since 28 November 1990) and Deputy Prime Ministers LEE Hsien Loong (since 28 November 1990) and Tony TAN Keng Yam (since 1 August 1995)

Slovakia

Prime Minister Mikulas DZURINDA (since 30 October 1998)

Slovenia

Prime Minister Janez DRNOVSEK (since 14 May 1992)

Solomon Islands

Prime Minister Bartholomew ULUFA'ALU (since 27 August 1997); Deputy Prime Minister Sir Baddeley DEVESI (since 27 August 1997)

South Africa

President Thabo MBEKI (since 16 June 1999); Executive Deputy President Jacob ZUMA (since 17 June 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Spain

President of the Government Jose Maria AZNAR Lopez (since 5 May 1996); First Vice President Francisco ALVAREZ CASCOS Fernandez (since 5 May 1996) and Second Vice President (and Minister of Economy and Finance) Rodrigo RATO Figaredo (since 5 May 1996)

Sri Lanka

President Chandrika Bandaranaike KUMARATUNGA (since 12 November 1994); note - Sirimavo BANDARANAIKE is the prime minister; in Sri Lanka the president is considered to be both the chief of state and the head of the government, this is in contrast to the more common practice of dividing the roles between the president and the prime minister when both offices exist

Sudan

President Lt. Gen. Umar Hasan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 October 1993); First Vice President Ali Uthman Muhammad TAHA (since 17 February 1998), Second Vice President (Police) Maj. Gen. George KONGOR AROP (since NA February 1994); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Suriname

President Jules WIJDENBOSCH (since 14 September 1996); Vice President Pretaapnarian RADHAKISHUN (since 14 September 1996); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Svalbard

Governor Morten RUUD (since NA November 1998) and Assistant Governor Rune Baard HANSEN (since NA 1996)

Swaziland

Prime Minister Sibusiso Barnabas DLAMINI (since 9 August 1996)

Sweden

Prime Minister Goran PERSSON (since 21 March 1996)

Switzerland

President Adolf OGI (since 1 January 2000); Vice President Moritz LEUENBERGER (since 1 January 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Syria

Prime Minister Mohammad Mustaf MIRU (since 13 March 2000), Deputy Prime Ministers Lt. Gen. Mustafa TALAS (since 11 March 1984), Dr. Salim YASIN (since NA December 1981), and Rashid AKHTARINI (since 4 July 1992)

Taiwan

Premier (President of the Executive Yuan) Vincent SIEW (since 1 September 1997) and Vice Premier (Vice President of the Executive Yuan) LIU Chao-shiuan (since 10 December 1997)

Tajikistan

Prime Minister Ogil OQILOV (since 20 January 1999)

Tanzania

President Benjamin William MKAPA (since 23 November 1995); Vice President Omar Ali JUMA (since 23 November 1995); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government (Note: Zanzibar elects a president who is head of government for matters internal to Zanzibar; Dr. Salmin AMOUR was elected to that office on 22 October 1995)

Thailand

Prime Minister CHUAN Likphai (since 15 November 1997)

Togo

Prime Minister Eugene Koffi ADOBOLI (since NA May 1999)

Tokelau

Aliki Faipule FALIMATEAO (since NA 1997)

Tonga

Prime Minister Baron VAEA (since 22 August 1991) and Deputy Prime Minister S. Langi KAVALIKU (since 22 August 1991)

Trinidad and Tobago

Prime Minister Basdeo PANDAY (since 9 November 1995)

Tunisia

Prime Minister Hamed KAROUI (since NA November 1999)

Turkmenistan

President and Chairman of the Cabinet of Ministers Saparmurat NIYAZOV (since 27 October 1990, when the first direct presidential election occurred); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Turks and Caicos Islands

Chief Minister Derek H. TAYLOR (since 31 January 1995)

Tuvalu

Prime Minister Ionatana IONATANA (since NA April 1999) and Deputy Prime Minister Lagitupu (of Nanumea) TUILIMU (since NA April 1999)

Uganda

President Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power 29 January 1986); Prime Minister Apollo NSIBAMBI (since 5 April 1999); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government; the prime minister assists the president in the supervision of the cabinet

Ukraine

Prime Minister Viktor YUSHCHENKO (since 22 December 1999), First Deputy Prime Minister Yuriy YEKHANUROV (since 30 December 1999), and three deputy prime ministers

United Arab Emirates

Prime Minister MAKTUM bin Rashid al-Maktum (since 8 October 1990), ruler of Dubayy (Dubai); Deputy Prime Minister SULTAN bin Zayid Al Nuhayyan (since 20 November 1990)

United Kingdom

Prime Minister Anthony C. L. (Tony) BLAIR (since 2 May 1997)

United States

President William Jefferson CLINTON (since 20 January 1993) and Vice President Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January 1993); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Uruguay

President Jorge BATLLE (since 1 March 2000) and Vice President Luis HIERRO (since 1 March 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Uzbekistan

Prime Minister Otkir SULTONOV (since 21 December 1995) and 10 deputy prime ministers

Vanuatu

Prime Minister Barak SOPE (since 25 November 1999); Deputy Prime Minister Stanley REGINALD (since 25 November 1999)

Venezuela

President Hugo CHAVEZ Frias (since 3 February 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Vietnam

Prime Minister Phan Van KHAI (since 25 September 1997); First Deputy Prime Minister Nguyen Tan DUNG (since 29 September 1997); Deputy Prime Ministers Nguyen Cong TAN (since 29 September 1997), Nguyen Manh CAM (since 29 September 1997), and Pham Gia KHIEM (since 29 September 1997)

Virgin Islands

Governor Dr. Charles Wesley TURNBULL (since 5 January 1999) and Lieutenant Governor Gererd LUZ James II (since 5 January 1999)

Wallis and Futuna

President of the Territorial Assembly Soane UHILA (since NA)

Yemen

Prime Minister Dr. Abd al-Karim Ali al-IRYANI (since NA April 1998)

Zambia

President Frederick CHILUBA (since 2 November 1991); Vice President Christon TEMBO (since 2 December 1997); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Zimbabwe

Executive President Robert Gabriel MUGABE (since 31 December 1987); Co-Vice Presidents Simon Vengai MUZENDA (since 31 December 1987) and Joseph MSIKA (since 23 December 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
 

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