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Executive branch / chief of state

This page shows the value of the Executive branch / chief of state information field for all countries in the Country Guide.

Notes on this field are available at the Information Field Notes page.

Albania

President of the Republic Rexhep MEIDANI (since 24 July 1997)

Algeria

President Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA (since 28 April 1999)

American Samoa

President William Jefferson CLINTON of the US (since 20 January 1993) and Vice President Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January 1993)

Andorra

French Coprince Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May 1995), represented by Mr. Frederic de SAINT-SERNIN (since NA); Spanish Coprince Episcopal Monseigneur Joan MARTI Alanis (since 31 January 1971), represented by Mr. Nemesi MARQUES OSTE (since NA)

Angola

President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

Anguilla

Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor Alan HOOLE (since 1 November 1995)

Antigua and Barbuda

Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General James B. CARLISLE (since NA 1993)

Argentina

President Fernando DE LA RUA (since 10 December 1999); Vice President Carlos Alberto ALVAREZ (since 10 December 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Armenia

President Robert KOCHARIAN (since 30 March 1998)

Aruba

Queen BEATRIX Wilhelmina Armgard of the Netherlands (since 30 April 1980), represented by Governor General Olindo KOOLMAN (since 1 January 1992)

Australia

Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Sir William DEANE (since 16 February 1996)

Austria

President Thomas KLESTIL (since 8 July 1992)

Azerbaijan

President Heydar ALIYEV (since 18 June 1993)

Bahamas, The

Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Sir Orville TURNQUEST (since 2 January 1995)

Bahrain

Amir HAMAD bin Isa Al Khalifa (since 6 March 1999); Heir Apparent Crown Prince SALMAN bin Hamad (son of the monarch, born 21 October 1969)

Bangladesh

President Shahabuddin AHMED (since 9 October 1996); note - the president's duties are normally ceremonial, but with the 13th amendment to the constitution ("Caretaker Government Amendment"), the president's role becomes significant at times when Parliament is dissolved and a caretaker government is installed - at presidential direction - to supervise the elections

Barbados

Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Sir Clifford Straughn HUSBANDS (since 1 June 1996)

Belarus

President Aleksandr LUKASHENKO (since 20 July 1994)

Belgium

King ALBERT II (since 9 August 1993); Heir Apparent Prince PHILIPPE, son of the monarch

Belize

Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Sir Colville YOUNG (since 17 November 1993)

Benin

President Mathieu KEREKOU (since 4 April 1996); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Bermuda

Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor Thorold MASEFIELD (since NA June 1997)

Bhutan

King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK (since 24 July 1972)

Bolivia

President Hugo BANZER Suarez (since 6 August 1997); Vice President Jorge Fernando QUIROGA Ramirez (since 6 August 1997); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Chairman of the Presidency Alija IZETBEGOVIC (chairman since 14 February 2000, presidency member since 14 March 1996 - Bosniak); other members of the three-member rotating (every 8 months) presidency: Zivko RADISIC (since 13 October 1998 - Serb) and Ante JELAVIC (since NA September 1998 - Croat)

Botswana

President Festus MOGAE (since 1 April 1998) and Vice President Seretse Ian KHAMA (since NA April 1998); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; vice president KHAMA is on a one-year leave of absence, effective 1 January 2000, but retains the title of vice president

Brazil

President Fernando Henrique CARDOSO (since 1 January 1995); Vice President Marco MACIEL (since 1 January 1995); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

British Indian Ocean Territory

Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)

British Virgin Islands

Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor Francis J. SAVAGE (since NA)

Brunei

Sultan and Prime Minister His Majesty Paduka Seri Baginda Sultan Haji HASSANAL Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah (since 5 October 1967); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government

Bulgaria

President Petar STOYANOV (since 22 January 1997); Vice President Todor KAVALDZHIEV (since 22 January 1997)

Burkina Faso

President Captain Blaise COMPAORE (since 15 October 1987)

Burundi

President Pierre BUYOYA (interim president since 27 September 1996, officially sworn in 11 June 1998), First Vice President Frederic BAMVUGINYUMVIRA (since NA May 1998), Second Vice President Mathias SINAMENYA (since NA May 1998); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

Cambodia

King Norodom SIHANOUK (reinstated 24 September 1993)

Cameroon

President Paul BIYA (since 6 November 1982)

Canada

Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Adrienne CLARKSON (since 7 October 1999)

Cape Verde

President Antonio MASCARENHAS Monteiro (since 22 March 1991)

Cayman Islands

Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)

Central African Republic

President Ange-Felix PATASSE (since 22 October 1993)

Chad

President Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY (since 4 December 1990)

Chile

President Ricardo LAGOS Escobar (since 11 March 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

China

President JIANG Zemin (since 27 March 1993) and Vice President HU Jintao (since 16 March 1998)

Christmas Island

Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by the Australian governor general

Cocos (Keeling) Islands

Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by the Australian governor general

Colombia

President Andres PASTRANA (since 7 August 1998); Vice President Gustavo BELL Lemus (since 7 August 1998); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Comoros

President AZALI Assoumani (since 6 May 1999); note - the interim government of President Tajiddine Ben Said MASSOUNDE, which had assumed power on 6 November 1998 upon the death of President Mohamed TAKI Abdulkarim, was overthrown in a bloodless coup on 30 April 1999

Congo, Democratic Republic of the

Laurent Desire KABILA (since 17 May 1997); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

Congo, Republic of the

President Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO (since 25 October 1997, following the civil war in which he toppled elected president Pascal LISSOUBA); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Cook Islands

Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Apenera SHORT (since NA); New Zealand High Commissioner Jon JONESSEN (since NA January 1998), representative of New Zealand

Costa Rica

President Miguel Angel RODRIGUEZ (since 8 May 1998); First Vice President Astrid FISCHEL Volio (since 8 May 1998), Second Vice President Elizabeth ODIO Benito (since 8 May 1998); note - president is both the chief of state and head of government

Cote d'Ivoire

Gen. Robert GUEI (since 25 December 1999); note - took power following a military coup against the government of former President Henri Konan BEDIE; president is both chief of state and head of government

Croatia

President Stjepan (Stipe) MESIC (since 18 February 2000)

Cuba

President of the Council of State and President of the Council of Ministers Fidel CASTRO Ruz (prime minister from February 1959 until 24 February 1976, when office was abolished; president since 2 December 1976); First Vice President of the Council of State and First Vice President of the Council of Ministers Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz (since 2 December 1976); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Cyprus

President Glafcos CLERIDES (since 28 February 1993); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; post of vice president is currently vacant; under the 1960 constitution, the post is reserved for a Turkish Cypriot

Czech Republic

President Vaclav HAVEL (since 2 February 1993)

Denmark

Queen MARGRETHE II (since 14 January 1972); Heir Apparent Crown Prince FREDERIK, elder son of the monarch (born 26 May 1968)

Djibouti

President GUELLEH Ismail Omar (since NA 1999);

Dominica

President Vernon Lorden SHAW (since 7 October 1998)

Dominican Republic

President Leonel FERNANDEZ Reyna (since 16 August 1996); Vice President Jaime David FERNANDEZ Mirabal (since 16 August 1996); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Ecuador

President Gustavo NOBOA (since 22 January 2000) following coup which deposed President MAHUAD; Vice President Pedro PINTO (since 28 January 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Egypt

President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK (since 14 October 1981)

El Salvador

President Francisco FLORES Perez (since 1 June 1999); Vice President Carlos QUINTANILLA Schmidt (since 1 June 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Equatorial Guinea

President Brig. Gen. (Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO (since 3 August 1979 when he seized power in a military coup)

Eritrea

President ISAIAS Afworki (since 8 June 1993); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Estonia

President Lennart MERI (since 5 October 1992)

Ethiopia

President NEGASSO Gidada (since 22 August 1995)

Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)

Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)

Faroe Islands

Queen MARGRETHE II of Denmark (since 14 January 1972), represented by High Commissioner Bente KLINTE, chief administrative officer (since NA)

Fiji

President Ratu Sir Kamisese MARA (acting president since 15 December 1993, president since 12 January 1994); Vice President Ratu Josefa Iloilo ULUIVUDA (since 18 January 1999)

Finland

President Tarja HALONEN (since 1 March 2000)

France

President Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May 1995)

French Guiana

President Jacques CHIRAC of France (since 17 May 1995), represented by Prefect Dominique VIAN (since NA January 1997)

French Polynesia

President Jacques CHIRAC of France (since 17 May 1995), represented by High Commissioner of the Republic Paul RONCIERE (since NA 1994)

Gabon

President El Hadj Omar BONGO (since 2 December 1967)

Gambia, The

President Yahya A. J. J. JAMMEH (since 12 October 1996); Vice President Isatou Njie SAIDY (since 20 March 1997); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Georgia

President Eduard Amvrosiyevich SHEVARDNADZE (previously elected chairman of the Government Council 10 March 1992, Council has since been disbanded; previously elected chairman of Parliament 11 October 1992; president since 26 November 1995); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Germany

President Johannes RAU (since 1 July 1999)

Ghana

President Jerry John RAWLINGS (since 7 January 1993); Vice President John Evans Atta MILLS (since 7 January 1993); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Gibraltar

Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor and Commander-in-Chief, the Right Honorable Sir Richard LUCE (since 24 February 1997); note - a new governor has been appointed and will arrive in March 2000

Greece

President Konstandinos (Kostis) STEPHANOPOULOS (since 10 March 1995)

Greenland

Queen MARGRETHE II of Denmark (since 14 January 1972), represented by High Commissioner Gunnar MARTENS (since NA 1995)

Grenada

Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Daniel WILLIAMS (since 9 August 1996)

Guadeloupe

President Jacques CHIRAC of France (since 17 May 1995), represented by Prefect Jean FEDINI (since NA 1996)

Guam

President William Jefferson CLINTON of the US (since 20 January 1993); Vice President Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January 1993)

Guatemala

President Alfonso Antonio PORTILLO Cabreras (since 14 January 2000); Vice President Juan Francisco REYES Lopez (since 14 January 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Guernsey

Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)

Guinea

President Lansana CONTE (head of military government since 5 April 1984, elected president 19 December 1993)

Guinea-Bissau

President Koumba YALLA (since 18 February 2000)

Guyana

President Bharrat JAGDEO (since NA August 1999); note - assumed presidency after resignation of President JAGAN

Haiti

President Rene Garcia PREVAL (since 7 February 1996)

Holy See (Vatican City)

Pope JOHN PAUL II (since 16 October 1978)

Honduras

President Carlos Roberto FLORES Facusse (since 27 January 1998); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Hong Kong

President of China JIANG Zemin (since 27 March 1993)

Hungary

President Arpad GONCZ (since 3 August 1990; previously interim president since 2 May 1990)

Iceland

President Olafur Ragnar GRIMSSON (since 1 August 1996)

India

President Kicheril Raman NARAYANAN (since 25 July 1997); Vice President Krishnan KANT (since 21 August 1997)

Indonesia

President Abdurrahman WAHID (since 20 October 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Iran

Leader of the Islamic Revolution Ayatollah Ali Hoseini-KHAMENEI (since 4 June 1989)

Iraq

President SADDAM Husayn (since 16 July 1979); Vice President Taha Muhyi al-Din MARUF (since 21 April 1974); Vice President Taha Yasin RAMADAN (since 23 March 1991)

Ireland

President Mary MCALEESE (since 11 November 1997)

Israel

President Ezer WEIZMAN (since 13 May 1993)

Italy

President Carlo Azeglio CIAMPI (since 13 May 1999)

Jamaica

Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Sir Howard Felix COOKE (since 1 August 1991)

Japan

Emperor AKIHITO (since 7 January 1989)

Jersey

Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)

Jordan

King ABDALLAH bin al Hussein (since 7 February 1999); Crown Prince HAMZAH bin al Hussein (half brother of the King, born 29 March 1980)

Kazakhstan

President Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV (chairman of the Supreme Soviet from 22 February 1990, elected president 1 December 1991)

Kenya

President Daniel Toroitich arap MOI (since 14 October 1978); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Kiribati

President Teburoro TITO (since 1 October 1994); Vice President Tewareka TENTOA (since 12 October 1994); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Korea, North

KIM Chong-il (since NA July 1994); note - in September 1998, KIM Chong-il was reelected Chairman of the National Defense Commission, a position accorded the nation's "highest administrative authority"; KIM Young-nam was named President of the Supreme People's Assembly Presidium and given the responsibility of representing the state and receiving diplomatic credentials

Korea, South

President KIM Dae-jung (since 25 February 1998)

Kuwait

Amir JABIR al-Ahmad al-Jabir Al Sabah (since 31 December 1977)

Kyrgyzstan

President Askar AKAYEV (since 28 October 1990)

Laos

President KHAMTAI Siphandon (since 26 February 1998); note - currently the position of vice president is vacant; Vice President OUDOM Khattiya died on 9 December 1999 and a replacement has not yet been named

Latvia

President Vaira VIKE-FREIBERGA (since 8 July 1999)

Lebanon

President Emile LAHUD (since 24 November 1998)

Lesotho

King LETSIE III (since 7 February 1996); note - King LETSIE III formerly occupied the throne from November 1990 to February 1995, while his father was in exile

Liberia

President Charles Ghankay TAYLOR (since 2 August 1997); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Libya

Revolutionary Leader Col. Muammar Abu Minyar al-QADHAFI (since 1 September 1969); note - holds no official title, but is de facto chief of state

Liechtenstein

Prince HANS ADAM II (since 13 November 1989, assumed executive powers 26 August 1984); Heir Apparent Prince ALOIS von und zu Liechtenstein, son of the monarch (born 11 June 1968)

Lithuania

President Valdas ADAMKUS (since 26 February 1998)

Luxembourg

Grand Duke JEAN (since 12 November 1964); Heir Apparent Prince HENRI (son of the monarch, born 16 April 1955); note - Grand Duke JEAN intends to abdicate in September 2000 in favor of his oldest son, Prince HENRI

Macau

President of China JIANG Zemin (since 27 March 1993)

Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of

President Boris TRAJKOVSKI (since 15 December 1999)

Madagascar

President Didier RATSIRAKA (since 10 February 1997)

Malawi

President Bakili MULUZI (since 21 May 1994); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Malaysia

Paramount Ruler Sultan TUNKU SALAHUDDIN Abdul Aziz Shah ibni Al-Marhum Sultan Hisammuddin Alam Shah (since 26 April 1999); Deputy Paramount Ruler Sultan MIZAN Zainal Abidin ibni A-Marhum Sultan Mahmud Al-Muktafi Billah Shah

Maldives

President Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM (since 11 November 1978); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Mali

President Alpha Oumar KONARE (since 8 June 1992)

Malta

President Guido DE MARCO (since 4 April 1999)

Man, Isle of

Lord of Mann Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Lieutenant Governor His Excellency Sir Timothy DAUNT (since 27 October 1995)

Marshall Islands

President Kessai Hesa NOTE (since 3 January 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Martinique

President Jacques CHIRAC of France (since 17 May 1995); Prefect Jean-Francois CORDET (since NA)

Mauritania

President Col. Maaouya Ould Sid Ahmed TAYA (since 12 December 1984)

Mauritius

President Cassam UTEEM (since 1 July 1992) and Vice President Angidi Verriah CHETTIAR (since 28 June 1997)

Mayotte

President Jacques CHIRAC of France (since 17 May 1995), represented by Prefect Philippe BOISADAM (since NA)

Mexico

President Ernesto ZEDILLO Ponce de Leon (since 1 December 1994); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Micronesia, Federated States of

President Leo A. FALCAM (since NA May 1999); Vice President Redley KILLION (since NA May 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Moldova

President Petru LUCINSCHI (since 15 January 1997)

Monaco

Prince RAINIER III (since 9 May 1949); Heir Apparent Prince ALBERT Alexandre Louis Pierre, son of the monarch (born 14 March 1958)

Mongolia

President Natsagiyn BAGABANDI (since 20 June 1997)

Montserrat

Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor Anthony John ABBOTT (since NA September 1997)

Morocco

King MOHAMED VI (since 23 July 1999)

Mozambique

President Joaquim Alberto CHISSANO (since 6 November 1986); note - before being popularly elected, CHISSANO was elected president by Frelimo's Central Committee 4 November 1986 (reelected by the Committee 30 July 1989)

Myanmar

Prime Minister and Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Gen. THAN SHWE (since 23 April 1992); note - the prime minister is both the chief of state and head of government

Namibia

President Samuel NUJOMA (since 21 March 1990); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Nauru

President Rene HARRIS (since NA 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Nepal

King BIRENDRA Bir Bikram Shah Dev (succeeded to the throne 31 January 1972 following the death of his father King MAHENDRA Bir Bikram Shah Dev, crowned king 24 February 1975); Heir Apparent Crown Prince DIPENDRA Bir Bikram

Netherlands

Queen BEATRIX Wilhelmina Armgard (since 30 April 1980); Heir Apparent WILLEM-ALEXANDER (born 27 April 1967), son of the monarch

Netherlands Antilles

Queen BEATRIX Wilhelmina Armgard of the Netherlands (since 30 April 1980), represented by Governor General Jaime SALEH (since NA October 1989)

New Caledonia

President of France Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May 1995), represented by High Commissioner Thierry LATASTE (since 19 July 1999)

New Zealand

Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Sir Michael HARDIE BOYS (since 21 March 1996)

Nicaragua

President Arnoldo ALEMAN Lacayo (10 January 1997); Vice President Enrique BOLANOS Geyer (10 January 1997); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

Niger

President Mamadou TANDJA (since 22 December 1999); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

Nigeria

President Olusegun OBASANJO (since 29 May 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Niue

Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); the UK and New Zealand are represented by New Zealand High Commissioner Warren SEARELL (since NA August 1993)

Norfolk Island

Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); the UK and Australia are represented by Administrator A. J. MESSNER (since 4 August 1997)

Northern Mariana Islands

President William Jefferson CLINTON of the US (since 20 January 1993); Vice President Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January 1993)

Norway

King HARALD V (since 17 January 1991); Heir Apparent Crown Prince HAAKON MAGNUS, son of the monarch (born 20 July 1973)

Oman

Sultan and Prime Minister QABOOS bin Said Al Said (since 23 July 1970); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government

Pakistan

President Mohammad Rafiq TARAR (since 31 December 1997)

Palau

President Kuniwo NAKAMURA (since 1 January 1993) and Vice President Tommy E. REMENGESAU Jr. (since 1 January 1993); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Panama

President Mireya Elisa MOSCOSO Rodriguez (since 1 September 1999); First Vice President Arturo Ulises VALLARINO (since 1 September 1999); Second Vice President (Dominador) Kaiser Baldonero BAZAN (since 1 September 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Papua New Guinea

Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Silas ATOPARE (since 13 November 1997)

Paraguay

President Luis GONZALEZ Macchi (since 28 March 1999); vice president (vacant); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Peru

President Alberto Kenyo FUJIMORI Fujimori (since 28 July 1990); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; additionally there are two vice presidents

Philippines

President Joseph Ejercito ESTRADA (since 30 June 1998) and Vice President Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO (since 30 June 1998); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Pitcairn Islands

Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by UK High Commissioner to New Zealand and Governor (nonresident) of the Pitcairn Islands Martin WILLIAMS (since NA May 1998); Commissioner (nonresident) Leon SALT (since NA; is the liaison person between the governor and the Island Council)

Poland

President Aleksander KWASNIEWSKI (since 23 December 1995)

Portugal

President Jorge SAMPAIO (since 9 March 1996)

Puerto Rico

President William Jefferson CLINTON of the US (since 20 January 1993); Vice President Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January 1993)

Qatar

Amir HAMAD bin Khalifa Al Thani (since 27 June 1995 when, as crown prince, he ousted his father, Amir KHALIFA bin Hamad Al Thani, in a bloodless coup); Crown Prince JASSIM bin Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani, third son of the monarch (selected crown prince by the monarch 22 October 1996); note - Amir HAMAD also holds the positions of minister of defense and commander-in-chief of the armed forces

Reunion

President Jacques CHIRAC of France (since 17 May 1995), represented by Prefect Robert POMMIES (since NA 1996)

Romania

President Emil CONSTANTINESCU (since 29 November 1996)

Russia

President Vladimir Vladimirovich PUTIN (since 7 May 2000); note - President YEL'TSIN resigned on 31 December 1999, naming Vladimir PUTIN as Acting President until new elections were held on 26 March 2000

Rwanda

President Maj. Gen. Paul KAGAME (FPR) (since 22 April 2000)

Saint Helena

Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)

Saint Kitts and Nevis

Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Dr. Cuthbert Montraville SEBASTIAN (since 1 January 1996)

Saint Lucia

Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Dr. Pearlette LOUISY (since September 1997)

Saint Pierre and Miquelon

President Jacques CHIRAC of France (since 17 May 1995), represented by Prefect Remi THUAU (since NA)

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Sir Charles ANTROBUS (since NA)

Samoa

Chief Susuga MALIETOA Tanumafili II (cochief of state from 1 January 1962 until becoming sole chief of state 5 April 1963)

San Marino

cochiefs of state Captain Regent Loris FRANCINI and Captain Regent Alberto CECCHETTI (for the period 1 April 1999-30 September 1999)

Sao Tome and Principe

President Miguel TROVOADA (since 4 April 1991)

Saudi Arabia

King and Prime Minister FAHD bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (since 13 June 1982); Crown Prince and First Deputy Prime Minister ABDALLAH bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (half-brother to the monarch, heir to the throne since 13 June 1982, regent from 1 January to 22 February 1996); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government

Senegal

President Abdoulaye WADE (since NA 2000)

Serbia and Montenegro

President Slobodan MILOSEVIC (since 23 July 1997); note - Milan MILUTINOVIC is president of Serbia (since 21 December 1997); Milo DJUKANOVIC is president of Montenegro (since 21 December 1997)

Seychelles

President France Albert RENE (since 5 June 1977); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Sierra Leone

President Ahmad Tejan KABBAH (since 29 March 1996, reinstated 10 March 1998); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Singapore

President Sellapan Rama (S. R.) NATHAN (since 1 September 1999)

Slovakia

President Rudolf SCHUSTER (since 15 June 1999)

Slovenia

President Milan KUCAN (since 22 April 1990)

Solomon Islands

Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Father John LAPLI (since NA 1999)

South Africa

President Thabo MBEKI (since 16 June 1999); Executive Deputy President Jacob ZUMA (since 17 June 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Spain

King JUAN CARLOS I (since 22 November 1975); Heir Apparent Prince FELIPE, son of the monarch, born 30 January 1968

Sri Lanka

President Chandrika Bandaranaike KUMARATUNGA (since 12 November 1994); note - Sirimavo BANDARANAIKE is the prime minister; in Sri Lanka the president is considered to be both the chief of state and the head of the government, this is in contrast to the more common practice of dividing the roles between the president and the prime minister when both offices exist

Sudan

President Lt. Gen. Umar Hasan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 October 1993); First Vice President Ali Uthman Muhammad TAHA (since 17 February 1998), Second Vice President (Police) Maj. Gen. George KONGOR AROP (since NA February 1994); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Suriname

President Jules WIJDENBOSCH (since 14 September 1996); Vice President Pretaapnarian RADHAKISHUN (since 14 September 1996); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Svalbard

King HARALD V of Norway (since 17 January 1991)

Swaziland

King MSWATI III (since 25 April 1986)

Sweden

King CARL XVI GUSTAF (since 19 September 1973); Heir Apparent Princess VICTORIA Ingrid Alice Desiree, daughter of the monarch (born 14 July 1977)

Switzerland

President Adolf OGI (since 1 January 2000); Vice President Moritz LEUENBERGER (since 1 January 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Syria

President Hafiz al-ASAD (since 22 February 1971); note - President ASAD seized power in the November 1970 coup, assumed presidential powers 22 February 1971, and was confirmed as president in the 12 March 1971 national elections; Vice Presidents 'Abd al-Halim ibn Said KHADDAM (since 11 March 1984) and Muhammad Zuhayr MASHARIQA (since 11 March 1984)

Taiwan

President LEE Teng-hui (succeeded to the presidency following the death of President CHIANG Ching-kuo 13 January 1988, elected by the National Assembly 21 March 1990, elected by popular vote in the first-ever direct elections for president 23 March 1996); Vice President LIEN Chan (since 20 May 1996)

Tajikistan

President Emomali RAHMONOV (since 6 November 1994; head of state and Supreme Assembly chairman since 19 November 1992)

Tanzania

President Benjamin William MKAPA (since 23 November 1995); Vice President Omar Ali JUMA (since 23 November 1995); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

Thailand

King PHUMIPHON Adunyadet (since 9 June 1946)

Togo

President Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA (since 14 April 1967)

Tokelau

Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); the UK and New Zealand are represented by Administrator Lindsay WATT (since NA March 1993)

Tonga

King Taufa'ahau TUPOU IV (since 16 December 1965)

Trinidad and Tobago

President Arthur Napoleon Raymond ROBINSON (since 19 March 1997)

Tunisia

President Zine El Abidine BEN ALI (since 7 November 1987)

Turkmenistan

President and Chairman of the Cabinet of Ministers Saparmurat NIYAZOV (since 27 October 1990, when the first direct presidential election occurred); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Turks and Caicos Islands

Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1953), represented by Governor John KELLY (since NA September 1996)

Tuvalu

Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Sir Tomasi PUAPUA (since 26 June 1998)

Uganda

President Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power 29 January 1986); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

Ukraine

President Leonid D. KUCHMA (since 19 July 1994)

United Arab Emirates

President ZAYID bin Sultan Al Nuhayyan (since 2 December 1971), ruler of Abu Zaby (Abu Dhabi) (since 6 August 1966) and Vice President MAKTUM bin Rashid al-Maktum (since 8 October 1990), ruler of Dubayy (Dubai)

United Kingdom

Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); Heir Apparent Prince CHARLES (son of the queen, born 14 November 1948)

United States

President William Jefferson CLINTON (since 20 January 1993) and Vice President Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January 1993); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Uruguay

President Jorge BATLLE (since 1 March 2000) and Vice President Luis HIERRO (since 1 March 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Uzbekistan

President Islom KARIMOV (since 24 March 1990, when he was elected president by the then Supreme Soviet)

Vanuatu

President Father John BANI (since 25 March 1999)

Venezuela

President Hugo CHAVEZ Frias (since 3 February 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Vietnam

President Tran Duc LUONG (since 24 September 1997) and Vice President Nguyen Thi BINH (since NA October 1992)

Virgin Islands

President William Jefferson CLINTON of the US (since 20 January 1993); Vice President Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January 1993)

Wallis and Futuna

President Jacques CHIRAC of France (since 17 May 1995), represented by High Administrator Christian DORS (since NA)

Yemen

President Lt. Gen. Ali Abdallah SALIH (since 22 May 1990, the former president of North Yemen, assumed office upon the merger of North and South Yemen); Vice President Maj. Gen. Abd al-Rab Mansur al-HADI (since 3 October 1994)

Zambia

President Frederick CHILUBA (since 2 November 1991); Vice President Christon TEMBO (since 2 December 1997); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Zimbabwe

Executive President Robert Gabriel MUGABE (since 31 December 1987); Co-Vice Presidents Simon Vengai MUZENDA (since 31 December 1987) and Joseph MSIKA (since 23 December 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
 

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