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This page shows the value of the Climate information field for all countries in the Country Guide.

Notes on this field are available at the Information Field Notes page.


arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers


mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers; interior is cooler and wetter


arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau; sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer

American Samoa

tropical marine, moderated by southeast trade winds; annual rainfall averages about 3 m; rainy season from November to April, dry season from May to October; little seasonal temperature variation


temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers


semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)


tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds


severe low temperatures vary with latitude, elevation, and distance from the ocean; East Antarctica is colder than West Antarctica because of its higher elevation; Antarctic Peninsula has the most moderate climate; higher temperatures occur in January along the coast and average slightly below freezing

Antigua and Barbuda

tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

Arctic Ocean

polar climate characterized by persistent cold and relatively narrow annual temperature ranges; winters characterized by continuous darkness, cold and stable weather conditions, and clear skies; summers characterized by continuous daylight, damp and foggy weather, and weak cyclones with rain or snow


mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in southwest


highland continental, hot summers, cold winters


tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

Ashmore and Cartier Islands


Atlantic Ocean

tropical cyclones (hurricanes) develop off the coast of Africa near Cape Verde and move westward into the Caribbean Sea; hurricanes can occur from May to December, but are most frequent from August to November


generally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east; tropical in north


temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain in lowlands and snow in mountains; cool summers with occasional showers


dry, semiarid steppe

Bahamas, The

tropical marine; moderated by warm waters of Gulf Stream


arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers

Baker Island

equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun


tropical; cool, dry winter (October to March); hot, humid summer (March to June); cool, rainy monsoon (June to October)


tropical; rainy season (June to October)

Bassas da India



cold winters, cool and moist summers; transitional between continental and maritime


temperate; mild winters, cool summers; rainy, humid, cloudy


tropical; very hot and humid; rainy season (May to February)


tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north


subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in winter


varies; tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot summers in central valleys; severe winters and cool summers in Himalayas


varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and semiarid

Bosnia and Herzegovina

hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along coast


semiarid; warm winters and hot summers

Bouvet Island



mostly tropical, but temperate in south

British Indian Ocean Territory

tropical marine; hot, humid, moderated by trade winds

British Virgin Islands

subtropical; humid; temperatures moderated by trade winds


tropical; hot, humid, rainy


temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers

Burkina Faso

tropical; warm, dry winters; hot, wet summers


equatorial; high plateau with considerable altitude variation (772 m to 2,670 m); average annual temperature varies with altitude from 23 to 17 degrees centigrade but is generally moderate as the average altitude is about 1,700 m; average annual rainfall is about 150 cm; wet seasons from February to May and September to November, and dry seasons from June to August and December to January


tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to November); dry season (December to April); little seasonal temperature variation


varies with terrain, from tropical along coast to semiarid and hot in north


varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north

Cape Verde

temperate; warm, dry summer; precipitation meager and very erratic

Cayman Islands

tropical marine; warm, rainy summers (May to October) and cool, relatively dry winters (November to April)

Central African Republic

tropical; hot, dry winters; mild to hot, wet summers


tropical in south, desert in north


temperate; desert in north; Mediterranean in central region; cool and damp in south


extremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north

Christmas Island

tropical; heat and humidity moderated by trade winds

Clipperton Island

tropical, humid, average temperature 20-32 degrees C, rains May-October

Cocos (Keeling) Islands

pleasant, modified by the southeast trade winds for about nine months of the year; moderate rainfall


tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands


tropical marine; rainy season (November to May)

Congo, Democratic Republic of the

tropical; hot and humid in equatorial river basin; cooler and drier in southern highlands; cooler and wetter in eastern highlands; north of Equator - wet season April to October, dry season December to February; south of Equator - wet season November to March, dry season April to October

Congo, Republic of the

tropical; rainy season (March to June); dry season (June to October); constantly high temperatures and humidity; particularly enervating climate astride the Equator

Cook Islands

tropical; moderated by trade winds

Coral Sea Islands


Costa Rica

tropical and subtropical; dry season (December to April); rainy season (May to November); cooler in highlands

Cote d'Ivoire

tropical along coast, semiarid in far north; three seasons - warm and dry (November to March), hot and dry (March to May), hot and wet (June to October)


Mediterranean and continental; continental climate predominant with hot summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry summers along coast


tropical; moderated by trade winds; dry season (November to April); rainy season (May to October)


temperate, Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool, winters

Czech Republic

temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters


temperate; humid and overcast; mild, windy winters and cool summers


desert; torrid, dry


tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds; heavy rainfall

Dominican Republic

tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation; seasonal variation in rainfall


tropical along coast, becoming cooler inland at higher elevations; tropical in Amazonian jungle lowlands


desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters

El Salvador

tropical; rainy season (May to October); dry season (November to April); tropical on coast; temperate in uplands

Equatorial Guinea

tropical; always hot, humid


hot, dry desert strip along Red Sea coast; cooler and wetter in the central highlands (up to 61 cm of rainfall annually); semiarid in western hills and lowlands; rainfall heaviest during June-September except in coastal desert


maritime, wet, moderate winters, cool summers


tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation

Europa Island


Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)

cold marine; strong westerly winds, cloudy, humid; rain occurs on more than half of days in year; occasional snow all year, except in January and February, but does not accumulate

Faroe Islands

mild winters, cool summers; usually overcast; foggy, windy


tropical marine; only slight seasonal temperature variation


cold temperate; potentially subarctic, but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes


generally cool winters and mild summers, but mild winters and hot summers along the Mediterranean

French Guiana

tropical; hot, humid; little seasonal temperature variation

French Polynesia

tropical, but moderate

French Southern and Antarctic Lands



tropical; always hot, humid

Gambia, The

tropical; hot, rainy season (June to November); cooler, dry season (November to May)

Gaza Strip

temperate, mild winters, dry and warm to hot summers


warm and pleasant; Mediterranean-like on Black Sea coast


temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers; occasional warm foehn wind


tropical; warm and comparatively dry along southeast coast; hot and humid in southwest; hot and dry in north


Mediterranean with mild winters and warm summers

Glorioso Islands



temperate; mild, wet winters; hot, dry summers


arctic to subarctic; cool summers, cold winters


tropical; tempered by northeast trade winds


subtropical tempered by trade winds; moderately high humidity


tropical marine; generally warm and humid, moderated by northeast trade winds; dry season from January to June, rainy season from July to December; little seasonal temperature variation


tropical; hot, humid in lowlands; cooler in highlands


temperate with mild winters and cool summers; about 50% of days are overcast


generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with northeasterly harmattan winds


tropical; generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with northeasterly harmattan winds


tropical; hot, humid, moderated by northeast trade winds; two rainy seasons (May to mid-August, mid-November to mid-January)


tropical; semiarid where mountains in east cut off trade winds

Heard Island and McDonald Islands


Holy See (Vatican City)

temperate; mild, rainy winters (September to mid-May) with hot, dry summers (May to September)


subtropical in lowlands, temperate in mountains

Hong Kong

tropical monsoon; cool and humid in winter, hot and rainy from spring through summer, warm and sunny in fall

Howland Island

equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun


temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers


temperate; moderated by North Atlantic Current; mild, windy winters; damp, cool summers


varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north

Indian Ocean

northeast monsoon (December to April), southwest monsoon (June to October); tropical cyclones occur during May/June and October/November in the northern Indian Ocean and January/February in the southern Indian Ocean


tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands


mostly arid or semiarid, subtropical along Caspian coast


mostly desert; mild to cool winters with dry, hot, cloudless summers; northern mountainous regions along Iranian and Turkish borders experience cold winters with occasionally heavy snows that melt in early spring, sometimes causing extensive flooding in central and southern Iraq


temperate maritime; modified by North Atlantic Current; mild winters, cool summers; consistently humid; overcast about half the time


temperate; hot and dry in southern and eastern desert areas


predominantly Mediterranean; Alpine in far north; hot, dry in south


tropical; hot, humid; temperate interior

Jan Mayen

arctic maritime with frequent storms and persistent fog


varies from tropical in south to cool temperate in north

Jarvis Island

tropical; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun


temperate; mild winters and cool summers

Johnston Atoll

tropical, but generally dry; consistent northeast trade winds with little seasonal temperature variation


mostly arid desert; rainy season in west (November to April)

Juan de Nova Island



continental, cold winters and hot summers, arid and semiarid


varies from tropical along coast to arid in interior

Kingman Reef

tropical, but moderated by prevailing winds


tropical; marine, hot and humid, moderated by trade winds

Korea, North

temperate with rainfall concentrated in summer

Korea, South

temperate, with rainfall heavier in summer than winter


dry desert; intensely hot summers; short, cool winters


dry continental to polar in high Tien Shan; subtropical in southwest (Fergana Valley); temperate in northern foothill zone


tropical monsoon; rainy season (May to November); dry season (December to April)


maritime; wet, moderate winters


Mediterranean; mild to cool, wet winters with hot, dry summers; Lebanon mountains experience heavy winter snows


temperate; cool to cold, dry winters; hot, wet summers


tropical; hot, humid; dry winters with hot days and cool to cold nights; wet, cloudy summers with frequent heavy showers


Mediterranean along coast; dry, extreme desert interior


continental; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow or rain; cool to moderately warm, cloudy, humid summers


transitional, between maritime and continental; wet, moderate winters and summers


modified continental with mild winters, cool summers


subtropical; marine with cool winters, warm summers

Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of

warm, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall


tropical along coast, temperate inland, arid in south


sub-tropical; rainy season (November to May); dry season (May to November)


tropical; annual southwest (April to October) and northeast (October to February) monsoons


tropical; hot, humid; dry, northeast monsoon (November to March); rainy, southwest monsoon (June to August)


subtropical to arid; hot and dry February to June; rainy, humid, and mild June to November; cool and dry November to February


Mediterranean with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers

Man, Isle of

cool summers and mild winters; temperate; overcast about one-third of the time

Marshall Islands

wet season from May to November; hot and humid; islands border typhoon belt


tropical; moderated by trade winds; rainy season (June to October); vulnerable to devastating cyclones (hurricanes) every eight years on average; average temperature 17.3 degrees C; humid


desert; constantly hot, dry, dusty


tropical, modified by southeast trade winds; warm, dry winter (May to November); hot, wet, humid summer (November to May)


tropical; marine; hot, humid, rainy season during northeastern monsoon (November to May); dry season is cooler (May to November)


varies from tropical to desert

Micronesia, Federated States of

tropical; heavy year-round rainfall, especially in the eastern islands; located on southern edge of the typhoon belt with occasionally severe damage

Midway Islands

subtropical, but moderated by prevailing easterly winds


moderate winters, warm summers


Mediterranean with mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers


desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)


tropical; little daily or seasonal temperature variation


Mediterranean, becoming more extreme in the interior


tropical to subtropical


tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers (southwest monsoon, June to September); less cloudy, scant rainfall, mild temperatures, lower humidity during winter (northeast monsoon, December to April)


desert; hot, dry; rainfall sparse and erratic


tropical; monsoonal; rainy season (November to February)

Navassa Island

marine, tropical


varies from cool summers and severe winters in north to subtropical summers and mild winters in south


temperate; marine; cool summers and mild winters

Netherlands Antilles

tropical; ameliorated by northeast trade winds

New Caledonia

tropical; modified by southeast trade winds; hot, humid

New Zealand

temperate with sharp regional contrasts


tropical in lowlands, cooler in highlands


desert; mostly hot, dry, dusty; tropical in extreme south


varies; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north


tropical; modified by southeast trade winds

Norfolk Island

subtropical, mild, little seasonal temperature variation

Northern Mariana Islands

tropical marine; moderated by northeast trade winds, little seasonal temperature variation; dry season December to June, rainy season July to October


temperate along coast, modified by North Atlantic Current; colder interior; rainy year-round on west coast


dry desert; hot, humid along coast; hot, dry interior; strong southwest summer monsoon (May to September) in far south

Pacific Ocean

planetary air pressure systems and resultant wind patterns exhibit remarkable uniformity in the south and east; trade winds and westerly winds are well-developed patterns, modified by seasonal fluctuations; tropical cyclones (hurricanes) may form south of Mexico from June to October and affect Mexico and Central America; continental influences cause climatic uniformity to be much less pronounced in the eastern and western regions at the same latitude in the North Pacific Ocean; the western Pacific is monsoonal - a rainy season occurs during the summer months, when moisture-laden winds blow from the ocean over the land, and a dry season during the winter months, when dry winds blow from the Asian landmass back to the ocean; tropical cyclones (typhoons) may strike southeast and east Asia from May to December


mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north


wet season May to November; hot and humid

Palmyra Atoll

equatorial, hot, and very rainy


tropical maritime; hot, humid, cloudy; prolonged rainy season (May to January), short dry season (January to May)

Papua New Guinea

tropical; northwest monsoon (December to March), southeast monsoon (May to October); slight seasonal temperature variation

Paracel Islands



subtropical to temperate; substantial rainfall in the eastern portions, becoming semiarid in the far west


varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west; temperate to frigid in Andes


tropical marine; northeast monsoon (November to April); southwest monsoon (May to October)

Pitcairn Islands

tropical, hot, humid; modified by southeast trade winds; rainy season (November to March)


temperate with cold, cloudy, moderately severe winters with frequent precipitation; mild summers with frequent showers and thundershowers


maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier in south

Puerto Rico

tropical marine, mild; little seasonal temperature variation


desert; hot, dry; humid and sultry in summer


tropical, but temperature moderates with elevation; cool and dry from May to November, hot and rainy from November to April


temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms


ranges from steppes in the south through humid continental in much of European Russia; subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the polar north; winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in Siberia; summers vary from warm in the steppes to cool along Arctic coast


temperate; two rainy seasons (February to April, November to January); mild in mountains with frost and snow possible

Saint Helena

Saint Helena - tropical; marine; mild, tempered by trade winds; Tristan da Cunha - temperate; marine, mild, tempered by trade winds (tends to be cooler than Saint Helena)

Saint Kitts and Nevis

tropical tempered by constant sea breezes; little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season (May to November)

Saint Lucia

tropical, moderated by northeast trade winds; dry season from January to April, rainy season from May to August

Saint Pierre and Miquelon

cold and wet, with much mist and fog; spring and autumn are windy

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

tropical; little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season (May to November)


tropical; rainy season (October to March), dry season (May to October)

San Marino

Mediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm, sunny summers

Sao Tome and Principe

tropical; hot, humid; one rainy season (October to May)

Saudi Arabia

harsh, dry desert with great extremes of temperature


tropical; hot, humid; rainy season (May to November) has strong southeast winds; dry season (December to April) dominated by hot, dry, harmattan wind

Serbia and Montenegro

in the north, continental climate (cold winters and hot, humid summers with well distributed rainfall); central portion, continental and Mediterranean climate; to the south, Adriatic climate along the coast, hot, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall inland


tropical marine; humid; cooler season during southeast monsoon (late May to September); warmer season during northwest monsoon (March to May)

Sierra Leone

tropical; hot, humid; summer rainy season (May to December); winter dry season (December to April)


tropical; hot, humid, rainy; no pronounced rainy or dry seasons; thunderstorms occur on 40% of all days (67% of days in April)


temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters


Mediterranean climate on the coast, continental climate with mild to hot summers and cold winters in the plateaus and valleys to the east

Solomon Islands

tropical monsoon; few extremes of temperature and weather


principally desert; December to February - northeast monsoon, moderate temperatures in north and very hot in south; May to October - southwest monsoon, torrid in the north and hot in the south, irregular rainfall, hot and humid periods (tangambili) between monsoons

South Africa

mostly semiarid; subtropical along east coast; sunny days, cool nights

South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands

variable, with mostly westerly winds throughout the year interspersed with periods of calm; nearly all precipitation falls as snow

Southern Ocean

sea temperatures vary from about 10 degrees Centigrade to -2 degrees Centigrade; cyclonic storms travel eastward around the continent and frequently are intense because of the temperature contrast between ice and open ocean; the ocean area from about latitude 40 south to the Antarctic Circle has the strongest average winds found anywhere on Earth; in winter the ocean freezes outward to 65 degrees south latitude in the Pacific sector and 55 degrees south latitude in the Atlantic sector, lowering surface temperatures well below 0 degrees Centigrade; at some coastal points intense persistent drainage winds from the interior keep the shoreline ice-free throughout the winter


temperate; clear, hot summers in interior, more moderate and cloudy along coast; cloudy, cold winters in interior, partly cloudy and cool along coast

Spratly Islands


Sri Lanka

tropical monsoon; northeast monsoon (December to March); southwest monsoon (June to October)


tropical in south; arid desert in north; rainy season (April to October)


tropical; moderated by trade winds


arctic, tempered by warm North Atlantic Current; cool summers, cold winters; North Atlantic Current flows along west and north coasts of Spitsbergen, keeping water open and navigable most of the year


varies from tropical to near temperate


temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool, partly cloudy summers; subarctic in north


temperate, but varies with altitude; cold, cloudy, rainy/snowy winters; cool to warm, cloudy, humid summers with occasional showers


mostly desert; hot, dry, sunny summers (June to August) and mild, rainy winters (December to February) along coast; cold weather with snow or sleet periodically hitting Damascus


tropical; marine; rainy season during southwest monsoon (June to August); cloudiness is persistent and extensive all year


midlatitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid to polar in Pamir Mountains


varies from tropical along coast to temperate in highlands


tropical; rainy, warm, cloudy southwest monsoon (mid-May to September); dry, cool northeast monsoon (November to mid-March); southern isthmus always hot and humid


tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north


tropical; moderated by trade winds (April to November)


tropical; modified by trade winds; warm season (December to May), cool season (May to December)

Trinidad and Tobago

tropical; rainy season (June to December)

Tromelin Island



temperate in north with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers; desert in south


temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior


subtropical desert

Turks and Caicos Islands

tropical; marine; moderated by trade winds; sunny and relatively dry


tropical; moderated by easterly trade winds (March to November); westerly gales and heavy rain (November to March)


tropical; generally rainy with two dry seasons (December to February, June to August); semiarid in northeast


temperate continental; Mediterranean only on the southern Crimean coast; precipitation disproportionately distributed, highest in west and north, lesser in east and southeast; winters vary from cool along the Black Sea to cold farther inland; summers are warm across the greater part of the country, hot in the south

United Arab Emirates

desert; cooler in eastern mountains

United Kingdom

temperate; moderated by prevailing southwest winds over the North Atlantic Current; more than one-half of the days are overcast

United States

mostly temperate, but tropical in Hawaii and Florida, arctic in Alaska, semiarid in the great plains west of the Mississippi River, and arid in the Great Basin of the southwest; low winter temperatures in the northwest are ameliorated occasionally in January and February by warm chinook winds from the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains


warm temperate; freezing temperatures almost unknown


mostly midlatitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in east


tropical; moderated by southeast trade winds


tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands


tropical in south; monsoonal in north with hot, rainy season (mid-May to mid-September) and warm, dry season (mid-October to mid-March)

Virgin Islands

subtropical, tempered by easterly trade winds, relatively low humidity, little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season May to November

Wake Island


Wallis and Futuna

tropical; hot, rainy season (November to April); cool, dry season (May to October); rains 2,500-3,000 mm per year (80% humidity); average temperature 26.6 degrees C

West Bank

temperate, temperature and precipitation vary with altitude, warm to hot summers, cool to mild winters

Western Sahara

hot, dry desert; rain is rare; cold offshore air currents produce fog and heavy dew


two large areas of polar climates separated by two rather narrow temperate zones from a wide equatorial band of tropical to subtropical climates


mostly desert; hot and humid along west coast; temperate in western mountains affected by seasonal monsoon; extraordinarily hot, dry, harsh desert in east


tropical; modified by altitude; rainy season (October to April)


tropical; moderated by altitude; rainy season (November to March)
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