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Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of



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Introduction

Background: International recognition of The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia's (FYROM) independence from Yugoslavia in 1991 was delayed by Greece's objection to the new state's use of what it considered a Hellenic name and symbols. Greece finally lifted its trade blockade in 1995, and the two countries agreed to normalize relations. FYROM's large Albanian minority and the de facto independence of neighboring Kosovo continue to be sources of ethnic tension.

Geography

Location: Southeastern Europe, north of Greece

Geographic coordinates: 41 50 N, 22 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area
  total: 25,333 sq km
  land: 24,856 sq km
  water: 477 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Vermont

Land boundaries
  total: 748 km
  border countries: Albania 151 km, Bulgaria 148 km, Greece 228 km, Serbia and Montenegro 221 km (all with Serbia)

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: warm, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall

Terrain: mountainous territory covered with deep basins and valleys; three large lakes, each divided by a frontier line; country bisected by the Vardar River

Elevation extremes
  lowest point: Vardar River 50 m
  highest point: Golem Korab (Maja e Korabit) 2,753 m

Natural resources: chromium, lead, zinc, manganese, tungsten, nickel, low-grade iron ore, asbestos, sulfur, timber, arable land

Land use
  arable land: 24%
  permanent crops: 2%
  permanent pastures: 25%
  forests and woodland: 39%
  other: 10% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 830 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: high seismic risks

Environment - current issues: air pollution from metallurgical plants

Environment - international agreements
  party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: landlocked; major transportation corridor from Western and Central Europe to Aegean Sea and Southern Europe to Western Europe

People

Population: 2,041,467 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure
  0-14 years: 23% (male 248,400; female 230,091)
  15-64 years: 67% (male 684,025; female 678,014)
  65 years and over: 10% (male 89,539; female 111,398) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.04% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 13.73 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 7.69 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -5.66 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio
  at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
  total population: 1 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 13.35 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
  total population: 73.79 years
  male: 71.58 years
  female: 76.19 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.82 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality
  noun: Macedonian(s)
  adjective: Macedonian

Ethnic groups: Macedonian 66.6%, Albanian 22.7%, Turkish 4%, Roma 2.2%, Serb 2.1%, other 2.4% (1994)

Religions: Macedonian Orthodox 67%, Muslim 30%, other 3%

Languages: Macedonian 70%, Albanian 21%, Turkish 3%, Serbo-Croatian 3%, other 3%

Literacy
  definition: NA
  total population: NA%
  male: NA%
  female: NA%

Government

Country name
  conventional long form: The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
  conventional short form: none
  local long form: Republika Makedonija
  local short form: Makedonija
  abbreviation: F.Y.R.O.M.

Data code: MK

Government type: emerging democracy

Capital: Skopje

Administrative divisions: 34 counties (opstini, singular - opstina) Berovo, Bitola, Brod, Debar, Delcevo, Gevgelija, Gostivar, Kavadarci, Kicevo, Kocani, Kratovo, Kriva Palanka, Krusevo, Kumanovo, Murgasevo, Negotino, Ohrid, Prilep, Probistip, Radovis, Resen, Skopje-Centar, Skopje-Cair, Skopje-Karpos, Skopje-Kisela Voda, Skopje-Gazi Baba, Stip, Struga, Strumica, Sveti Nikole, Tetovo, Titov Veles, Valandovo, Vinica (Note: in September 1996, the Macedonian Assembly passed legislation changing the territorial division of the country; names of the 123 new municipalities are as follows: Aracinovo, Bac, Belcista, Berovo, Bistrica, Bitola, Blatec, Bo Lukovo, Bogdanci, Bogomila, Bogovinje, Bosilovo, Brvenica, Cair (Skopje), Capari, Caska, Cegrane, Centar Zupa, Cesinovo, Cucer-Sandevo, Debar, Delcevo, Delogozdi, Demir Hisar, Demir Kapija, Djepiste, Dobrusevo, Dolna Banjica, Dolneni, Drugovo, Gazi Baba (Skopje), Gevgelija, Gjorce Petrov (Skopje), Gostivar, Gradsko, Ilinden, Izvor, Jegunovce, Kamenjane, Karbinci, Karpos (Skopje), Kadarci, Kicevo, Kisela Voda (Skopje), Klecevce, Kocani, Konce, Kondovo, Konopiste, Kosel, Kratovo, Kriva Orasac, Kriva Palanka, Krivogastani, Krusevo, Kuklis, Kukurecani, Kumanovo, Labunista, Lipkovo, Lozovo, Lukovo, Mak. Brod, Mak. Kamenica, Mavrovi Anovi, Meseista, Miravci, Mogila, Murtino, Negotino, Novaci, Novo Selo, Oblesevo, Ohrid, Opstina Centar (Skopje), Orasac, Orizari, Oslomej, Pehcevo, Petrovec, Plasnia, Podares, Prilep, Probistip, Radovis, Rakovce, Resen, Rosoman, Rostusha, Samokov, Saraj, Sipkovica, Sopiste, Sopotnika, Srbinovo, Star Dojran, Staro Nagoricane, Stip, Stravina, Struga, Strumica, Studenicani, Suto Orizari (Skopje), Sveti Nikole, Tearce, Tetovo, Topolcani, Valandovo, Vasilevo, Veleista, Veles, Vevcani, Vinica, Vitoliste, Vranestica, Vrapciste, Vratnica Vrutok, Zajas, Zelenikovo, Zileno, Zitose, Zletovo, Zrnovci)

Independence: 17 September 1991 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday: 8 September Independence Day

Constitution: adopted 17 November 1991, effective 20 November 1991 (Note: Democratic Party for Albanians (DPA), which is now a member party of the government, is calling for a rewrite of the constitution to declare ethnic Albanians a national group and allow for regional autonomy)

Legal system: based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
  chief of state: President Boris TRAJKOVSKI (since 15 December 1999)
  head of government: Prime Minister Ljubco GEORGIEVSKI (since 30 November 1998)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the majority vote of all the deputies in the Assembly; note - current cabinet formed by the government coalition parties VMRO-DPMNE, DA, and DPA
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 14 November 1999 (next to be held NA October 2004); prime minister appointed by the president
  election results: Boris TRAJKOVSKI elected president on second-round ballot; percent of vote - Boris TRAJKOVSKI 52.4%, Tito PETKOVSKI 46.2%

Legislative branch: unicameral Assembly or Sobranje (120 seats - 85 members are elected by popular vote; 35 members come from lists of candidates submitted by parties based on the percentage that parties gain from the overall vote; all serve four-year terms)
  elections: last held 18 October and 1 November 1998 (next to be held NA 2002)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - VMRO-DPMNE 49, SDSM 27, PDP 14, DA 13, DPA 11, LDP 4, Socialist Party 1, Roma Party 1

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court, judges are elected by the Judicial Council; Judicial Court of the Republic, judges are elected by the Judicial Council

Political parties and leaders: Alliance of Romas [leader NA]; Alliance of Communists [leader NA]; Civic Liberal Party [leader NA]; Communist Party [leader NA]; Democratic Alternative or DA [Vasil TUPURKOVSKI, president]; Democratic Party for Albanians or DPA [Arben XHAFERI, president]; Democratic Party of Macedonia or DPM [Tomislav STOJANOVSK-BOMBAJ]; Democratic Party of Serbs or DPSM [Dragisa MILETIC]; Democratic Party of Turks or DPTM [Erdogan SARAC]; Democratic Progressive Party of Romas [leader NA]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization - Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity or VMRO-DPMNE [Ljubcho GEORGIEVSKI, president]; Labor Party or LP [Krste JANKOVSKI]; League of Democracy [leader NA]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Risto PENOV]; Movement for All Macedonian Action or MAAK [Straso ANGELOVSKI]; Party for Democratic Action-True Path [leader NA]; Party for Democratic Prosperity or PDP [Abdurahman HALITI, president]; Party for the Complete Emancipation of Romas or PCER [Bajram BERAT]; Party of Pensioners of Macedonia [leader NA]; Republican Party for National Unity [leader NA]; Social Christian Party of Macedonia [leader NA]; Social-Democratic Alliance of Macedonia or SDSM (former Communist Party) [Branko CRVENKOVSKI, president]; Social Democratic Party of Macedonia or SDPM [leader NA]; Socialist Party of Macedonia or SP [Ljubisav IVANOV, president]

International organization participation: BIS, CCC, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US
  chief of mission: Ambassador Ljubica Z. ACEVSKA
  chancery: 3050 K Street, NW, Suite 210, Washington, DC 20007
  telephone: [1] (202) 337 3063
  FAX: [1] (202) 337-3093
  consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US
  chief of mission: Ambassador Michael EINIK
  embassy: Bul. Ilindenska bb, 91000 Skopje
  mailing address: American Embassy Skopje, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-7120 (pouch)
  telephone: [389] (91) 116-180
  FAX: [389] (91) 117-103

Flag description: a rising yellow sun with eight rays extending to the edges of the red field

Economy

Economy - overview: The breakup of Yugoslavia in 1991 deprived Macedonia, then its poorest republic, of key protected markets and large transfer payments from the center. Worker remittances and foreign aid have softened the subsequent volatile recovery period. Continued recovery depends on Macedonia's ability to attract investment, to redevelop trade ties with Greece and Serbia and Montenegro, and to maintain its commitment to economic liberalization. The economy can meet its basic food needs but depends on outside sources for all of its oil and gas and most of its modern machinery and parts. Growth in 1999 was held down by the severe regional economic dislocations caused by the Kosovo conflict.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $7.6 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.5% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,800 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector
  agriculture: 13%
  industry: 32%
  services: 55% (1998 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 673,000 (1995 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%

Unemployment rate: 35% (1999 est.)

Budget
  revenues: $1.06 billion
  expenditures: $1 billion, including capital expenditures of $107 million (1996 est.)

Industries: coal, metallic chromium, lead, zinc, ferronickel, textiles, wood products, tobacco

Industrial production growth rate: -2% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 6.664 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source
  fossil fuel: 85.37%
  hydro: 14.63%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 6.198 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: rice, tobacco, wheat, corn, millet, cotton, sesame, mulberry leaves, citrus, vegetables; beef, pork, poultry, mutton

Exports: $1.2 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: food, beverages, tobacco; miscellaneous manufactures, iron and steel

Exports - partners: Germany 21%, Serbia and Montenegro 18%, US 13%, Greece 7%, Italy 6% (1998)

Imports: $1.56 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels; food products

Imports - partners: Germany 13%, Serbia and Montenegro 13%, Slovenia 8%, Ukraine 6%, Italy 6% (1998)

Debt - external: $1.7 billion (1998 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: Taiwan $10.5 million; EU $100 million to be split with Albania (1999)

Currency: 1 Macedonian denar (MKD) = 100 deni

Exchange rates: denars per US$1 - 59.773 (January 2000), 56.902 (1999), 54.462 (1998), 50.004 (1997), 39.981 (1996), 37.882 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 407,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system
  domestic: NA
  international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM 29, FM 20, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 410,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 136 (1997)

Televisions: 510,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 6 (1999)

Transportation

Railways
  total: 699 km
  standard gauge: 699 km 1.435-m gauge (233 km electrified) (Note: a new 56-km line is under construction to the Bulgarian border (1999))

Highways
  total: 8,684 km
  paved: 5,540 km (including 133 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 3,144 km (1997 est.)

Waterways: none, lake transport only

Pipelines: 10 km

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 16 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways
  total: 10
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
  under 914 m: 8 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways
  total: 6
  914 to 1,523 m: 3
  under 914 m: 3 (1999 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Police Force

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability
  males age 15-49: 545,852 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service
  males age 15-49: 440,287 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually
  males: 17,942 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $77 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.5% (FY99)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: dispute with Greece over its name; the border commission formed by The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Serbia and Montenegro in April 1996 to resolve differences in delineation of their mutual border has made no progress so far; Albanians in F.Y.R.O.M. claim discrimination in education, access to public-sector jobs, and representation in government

Illicit drugs: increasing transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and hashish; minor transit point for South American cocaine destined for Europe

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