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Indonesia



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Introduction

Background: The world's largest archipelago, Indonesia achieved independence from the Netherlands in 1949. Current issues include: implementing IMF-mandated reforms of the banking sector, effecting a transition to a popularly elected government after years of rule by dictators, addressing charges of cronyism and corruption among the Chinese-dominated business class, dealing with alleged human rights violations by the military, and resolving growing pressures for some form of autonomy or independence in certain regions such as Aceh and Irian Jaya. On 30 August 1999 a provincial referendum for independence was overwhelmingly approved by the people of Timor Timur. Concurrence followed by Indonesia's national legislature, and the name East Timor was provisionally adopted. The independent status of East Timor has yet to be formally established.

Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean

Geographic coordinates: 5 00 S, 120 00 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area
  total: 1,919,440 sq km
  land: 1,826,440 sq km
  water: 93,000 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than three times the size of Texas

Land boundaries
  total: 2,602 km
  border countries: Malaysia 1,782 km, Papua New Guinea 820 km

Coastline: 54,716 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

Terrain: mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains

Elevation extremes
  lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Puncak Jaya 5,030 m

Natural resources: petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver

Land use
  arable land: 10%
  permanent crops: 7%
  permanent pastures: 7%
  forests and woodland: 62%
  other: 14% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 45,970 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: occasional floods, severe droughts, tsunamis, earthquakes, volcanoes

Environment - current issues: deforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage; air pollution in urban areas; smoke and haze from forest fires

Environment - international agreements
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note: archipelago of 17,000 islands (6,000 inhabited); straddles Equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean

People

Population: 224,784,210 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure
  0-14 years: 30.57% (male 34,932,102; female 33,783,603)
  15-64 years: 64.96% (male 72,889,994; female 73,124,821)
  65 years and over: 4.47% (male 4,413,268; female 5,640,422) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.63% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 22.6 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 6.31 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
  total population: 1 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 42.21 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
  total population: 67.96 years
  male: 65.61 years
  female: 70.42 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.61 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality
  noun: Indonesian(s)
  adjective: Indonesian

Ethnic groups: Javanese 45%, Sundanese 14%, Madurese 7.5%, coastal Malays 7.5%, other 26%

Religions: Muslim 88%, Protestant 5%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 2%, Buddhist 1%, other 1% (1998)

Languages: Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects, the most widely spoken of which is Javanese

Literacy
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 83.8%
  male: 89.6%
  female: 78% (1995 est.)

Government

Country name
  conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia
  conventional short form: Indonesia
  local long form: Republik Indonesia
  local short form: Indonesia
  former: Netherlands East Indies; Dutch East Indies

Data code: ID

Government type: republic

Capital: Jakarta

Administrative divisions: 23 provinces (propinsi-propinsi, singular - propinsi), 2 special regions* (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular - daerah istimewa), and 1 special capital city district** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Bengkulu, Irian Jaya, Jakarta Raya**, Jambi, Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Kalimantan Barat, Kalimantan Selatan, Kalimantan Tengah, Kalimantan Timur, Lampung, Maluku, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Riau, Sulawesi Selatan, Sulawesi Tengah, Sulawesi Tenggara, Sulawesi Utara, Sumatera Barat, Sumatera Selatan, Sumatera Utara, Yogyakarta*; note - there may be a new province named Maluku Utara (Note: following the 30 August 1999 provincial referendum for independence which was overwhelmingly approved by the people of Timor Timur and the October 1999 concurrence of Indonesia's national legislature, the name East Timor was adopted as a provisional name for the political entity formerly known as Propinsi Timor Timur until such time as the entity's independent status is formally established)

Independence: 17 August 1945 (proclaimed independence; on 27 December 1949, Indonesia became legally independent from the Netherlands)

National holiday: Independence Day, 17 August (1945)

Constitution: August 1945, abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949 and Provisional Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July 1959

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law, substantially modified by indigenous concepts and by new criminal procedures code; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of age

Executive branch
  chief of state: President Abdurrahman WAHID (since 20 October 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
  head of government: President Abdurrahman WAHID (since 20 October 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
  cabinet: Cabinet
  elections: president and vice president selected by vote of the People's Consultative Assembly for five-year terms; selection last held 20 October 1999 (next to be held by NA 2004)
  election results: Abdurrahman WAHID selected president by vote of the People's Consultative Assembly, receiving 373 votes to 313 votes for MEGAWATI; MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri selected vice president by vote of the People's Consultative Assembly

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives or Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) (500 seats; 462 elected by popular vote, 38 are appointed military representatives; members serve five-year terms)
  elections: last held 7 June 1999 (next to be held NA June 2004)
  election results: percent of vote by party - PDI-P 37.4%, Golkar 20.9%, PKB 17.4%, PPP 10.7%, PAN 7.3%, PBB 1.8%, other 4.5%; seats by party - PDI-P 154, Golkar 120, PPP 58, PKB 51, PAN 35, PBB 14, other 30 (Note: the People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR) includes the DPR plus 200 indirectly selected members; it meets every five years to elect the president and vice president and to approve the broad outlines of national policy)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Mahkamah Agung), the judges are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: Crescent Moon and Star Party or PBB [Yusril Ihza MAHENDRA, chairman]; Development Unity Party or PPP (federation of former Islamic parties) [Hamzah HAZ, chairman]; Golkar [Akbar TANSUNG, general chairman]; Indonesia Democracy Party or PDI (federation of former Nationalist and Christian Parties) [Budi HARDJONO, chairman]; Indonesia Democracy Party-Struggle or PDI-P [MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri, chairperson]; National Awakening Party or PKB [Abdurrahman WAHID]; National Mandate Party or PAN [Amien RAIS, chairman]

International organization participation: APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMOP, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US
  chief of mission: Ambassador Maleeha LODHI
  chancery: 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
  telephone: [1] (202) 775-5200
  FAX: [1] (202) 775-5365
  consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US
  chief of mission: Ambassador Robert GELBARD
  embassy: Medan Merdeka Selatan 5, Jakarta
  mailing address: Unit 8129, Box 1, APO AP 96520
  telephone: [62] (21) 344-2211
  FAX: [62] (21) 386-2259
  consulate(s) general: Surabaya

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the flag of Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland, which is white (top) and red

Economy

Economy - overview: The Indonesian economy stabilized in 1999, following the sharp contraction and high inflation of 1998. By following tight monetary policy, the government reduced inflation from over 70% in 1998 to 2% in 1999. Although interest rates spiked as high as 70% in response to the monetary contraction, they fell rapidly to the 10% to 15% range. The economy stopped its free-fall as GDP showed some growth in the second half of 1999, although GDP for the year as a whole showed no growth. The government managed to recapitalize a handful of private banks and has begun recapitalizing the state-owned banking sector. New lending, however, remains almost unavailable as banks continue to be wary of issuing new debt in an environment where little progress has been made in restructuring the huge burden of outstanding debts. IMF payments were suspended late in 1999 as the result of evidence that a private bank had illegally funneled payments it received from the government to one of the political parties. The government has forecast growth of 3.8% for FY00/01. The spread of sectarian violence and continuing dissatisfaction with the pace of bank and debt restructuring will make it difficult for Indonesia to attract the private investment necessary to achieve this goal.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $610 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 0% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,800 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector
  agriculture: 21%
  industry: 35%
  services: 44% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share
  lowest 10%: 3.6%
  highest 10%: 30.3% (1996)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 88 million (1998)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 45%, trade, restaurant, and hotel 19%, manufacturing 11%, transport and communications 5%, construction 4% (1998)

Unemployment rate: 15%-20% (1998 est.)

Budget
  revenues: $25.4 billion (of which $6 billion is from international financial institutions)
  expenditures: $25.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY99/00 est.)

Industries: petroleum and natural gas; textiles, apparel, and footwear; mining, cement, chemical fertilizers, plywood; rubber; food; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 1.5% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 73.13 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source
  fossil fuel: 88.19%
  hydro: 8.39%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 3.42% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 68.011 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: rice, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, palm oil, copra; poultry, beef, pork, eggs

Exports: $48 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: oil and gas, plywood, textiles, rubber

Exports - partners: Japan 18%, EU 15%, US 14%, Singapore 13%, South Korea 5%, Hong Kong 4%, China 4%, Taiwan 3% (1999 est.)

Imports: $24 billion (c.i.f., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment; chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs

Imports - partners: Japan 17%, US 13%, Singapore 10%, Germany 9%, Australia 6%, South Korea 5%, Taiwan 3%, China 3% (1999 est.)

Debt - external: $140 billion (1998 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $43 billion from IMF program and other official external financing (1997-2000)

Currency: Indonesian rupiah (Rp) = 100 sen

Exchange rates: Indonesian rupiahs (Rp) per US$1 - 7,278.8 (January 2000), 7,855.2 (1999), 10,013.6 (1998), 2,909.4 (1997), 2,342.3 (1996), 2,248.6 (1995)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 3.291 million (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 1.2 million (1998)

Telephone system: domestic service fair, international service good
  domestic: interisland microwave system and HF radio police net; domestic satellite communications system
  international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 678, FM 43, shortwave 82 (1998)

Radios: 31.5 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 41 (1999)

Televisions: 13.75 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 24 (1999)

Transportation

Railways
  total: 6,458 km
  narrow gauge: 5,961 km 1.067-m gauge (101 km electrified; 101 km double track); 497 km 0.750-m gauge (1995)

Highways
  total: 342,700 km
  paved: 158,670 km
  unpaved: 184,030 km (1997 est.)

Waterways: 21,579 km total; Sumatra 5,471 km, Java and Madura 820 km, Kalimantan 10,460 km, Sulawesi (Celebes) 241 km, Irian Jaya 4,587 km

Pipelines: crude oil 2,505 km; petroleum products 456 km; natural gas 1,703 km (1989)

Ports and harbors: Cilacap, Cirebon, Jakarta, Kupang, Palembang, Semarang, Surabaya, Ujungpandang

Merchant marine
  total: 586 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,676,875 GRT/3,700,864 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 38, cargo 346, chemical tanker 9, container 19, liquified gas 5, livestock carrier 1, passenger 7, passenger/cargo 13, petroleum tanker 114, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off 11, short-sea passenger 8, specialized tanker 9, vehicle carrier 5 (1999 est.)

Airports: 446 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways
  total: 127
  over 3,047 m: 4
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 12
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 39
  914 to 1,523 m: 41
  under 914 m: 31 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways
  total: 319
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
  914 to 1,523 m: 33
  under 914 m: 281 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 4 (1999 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability
  males age 15-49: 62,948,286 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service
  males age 15-49: 36,826,282 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually
  males: 2,273,324 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1 billion (FY98/99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.3% (FY98/99)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Sipadan and Ligitan Islands in dispute with Malaysia

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis largely for domestic use; possible growing role as transshipment point for Golden Triangle heroin

 

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