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Anguilla

(overseas territory of the UK)


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Introduction

Background: Colonized by English settlers from Saint Kitts in 1650, Anguilla was administered by Great Britain until the early 19th century, when the island - against the wishes of the inhabitants - was incorporated into a single British dependency along with Saint Kitts and Nevis. Several attempts at separation failed. In 1971, two years after a revolt, Anguilla was finally allowed to secede; this arrangement was formally recognized in 1980 with Anguilla becoming a separate British dependency.

Geography

Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, east of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates: 18 15 N, 63 10 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area
  total: 91 sq km
  land: 91 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about half the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 61 km

Maritime claims
  exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds

Terrain: flat and low-lying island of coral and limestone

Elevation extremes
  lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
  highest point: Crocus Hill 65 m

Natural resources: salt, fish, lobster

Land use
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  permanent pastures: 0%
  forests and woodland: 0%
  other: 100% (mostly rock with sparse scrub oak, few trees, some commercial salt ponds)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: frequent hurricanes and other tropical storms (July to October)

Environment - current issues: supplies of potable water sometimes cannot meet increasing demand largely because of poor distribution system

People

Population: 11,797 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure
  0-14 years: 26% (male 1,565; female 1,519)
  15-64 years: 67% (male 4,040; female 3,839)
  65 years and over: 7% (male 369; female 465) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.93% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 15.34 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 5.76 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 19.75 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 25.44 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
  total population: 76.11 years
  male: 73.22 years
  female: 79.09 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality
  noun: Anguillan(s)
  adjective: Anguillan

Ethnic groups: black

Religions: Anglican 40%, Methodist 33%, Seventh-Day Adventist 7%, Baptist 5%, Roman Catholic 3%, other 12%

Languages: English (official)

Literacy
  definition: age 12 and over can read and write
  total population: 95%
  male: 95%
  female: 95% (1984 est.)

Government

Country name
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Anguilla

Data code: AV

Dependency status: overseas territory of the UK

Government type: NA

Capital: The Valley

Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of the UK)

Independence: none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday: Anguilla Day, 30 May

Constitution: Anguilla Constitutional Order 1 April 1982; amended 1990

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor Alan HOOLE (since 1 November 1995)
  head of government: Chief Minister Hubert HUGHES (since 16 March 1994)
  cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor from among the elected members of the House of Assembly
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; chief minister appointed by the governor from among the members of the House of Assembly

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly (11 seats total, 7 elected by direct popular vote, 2 ex officio members and 2 appointed; members serve five-year terms)
  elections: last held 4 March 1999 (next to be held 10 March 2004)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ANA 2, AUP 2, ADP 2, independent 1

Judicial branch: High Court (judge provided by Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court)

Political parties and leaders: Anguilla Democratic Party or ADP [Victor BANKS]; Anguilla National Alliance or ANA [Osbourne FLEMING]; Anguilla United Party or AUP [Hubert HUGHES]

International organization participation: Caricom (associate), CDB, Interpol (subbureau), OECS (associate), ECLAC (associate)

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory of the UK)

Flag description: blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Anguillan coat of arms centered in the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms depicts three orange dolphins in an interlocking circular design on a white background with blue wavy water below

Economy

Economy - overview: Anguilla has few natural resources, and the economy depends heavily on luxury tourism, offshore banking, lobster fishing, and remittances from emigrants. The economy, and especially the tourism sector, suffered a setback in late 1995 due to the effects of Hurricane Luis in September but recovered in 1996. Increased activity in the tourism industry, which has spurred the growth of the construction sector, contributed to economic growth in 1997-98. Anguillan officials have put substantial effort into developing the offshore financing sector. A comprehensive package of financial services legislation was enacted in late 1994. In the medium term, prospects for the economy will depend on the tourism sector and, therefore, on continuing income growth in the industrialized nations as well as favorable weather conditions.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $88 million (1998 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 6.5% (1998 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $7,900 (1998 est.)

GDP - composition by sector
  agriculture: 4%
  industry: 18%
  services: 78% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (1998 est.)

Labor force: 4,400 (1992)

Labor force - by occupation: commerce 36%, services 29%, construction 18%, transportation and utilities 10%, manufacturing 3%, agriculture/fishing/forestry/mining 4%

Unemployment rate: 7% (1992 est.)

Budget
  revenues: $20.4 million
  expenditures: $23.3 million, including capital expenditures of $3.8 million (1997 est.)

Industries: tourism, boat building, offshore financial services

Industrial production growth rate: 3.1% (1997 est.)

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - production by source
  fossil fuel: NA%
  hydro: NA%
  nuclear: NA%
  other: NA%

Electricity - consumption: NA kWh

Electricity - exports: NA kWh

Electricity - imports: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: small quantities of tobacco, vegetables; cattle raising

Exports: $4.5 million (1998)

Exports - commodities: lobster, fish, livestock, salt

Exports - partners: NA

Imports: $57.6 million (1998)

Imports - commodities: NA

Imports - partners: NA

Debt - external: $8.8 million (1998)

Economic aid - recipient: $3.5 million (1995)

Currency: 1 East Caribbean dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.7000 (fixed rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 4,000 (1994)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system
  domestic: modern internal telephone system
  international: microwave radio relay to island of Saint Martin (Guadeloupe and Netherlands Antilles)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 6, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 3,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: 1,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways
  total: 279 km
  paved: 253 km
  unpaved: 26 km (1998 est.)

Ports and harbors: Blowing Point, Road Bay

Merchant marine: none (1999 est.)

Airports: 3 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways
  total: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways
  total: 2
  under 914 m: 2 (1999 est.)

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

 

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