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Andorra



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Introduction

Background: Long isolated and impoverished, mountainous Andorra has achieved considerable prosperity since World War II through its tourist industry. Many immigrants (legal and illegal) are attracted to the thriving economy with its lack of income taxes.

Geography

Location: Southwestern Europe, between France and Spain

Geographic coordinates: 42 30 N, 1 30 E

Map references: Europe

Area
  total: 468 sq km
  land: 468 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries
  total: 120.3 km
  border countries: France 56.6 km, Spain 63.7 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers

Terrain: rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys

Elevation extremes
  lowest point: Riu Runer 840 m
  highest point: Coma Pedrosa 2,946 m

Natural resources: hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead

Land use
  arable land: 4%
  permanent crops: 0%
  permanent pastures: 45%
  forests and woodland: 35%
  other: 16% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: snowslides, avalanches

Environment - current issues: deforestation; overgrazing of mountain meadows contributes to soil erosion; air pollution; waste water treatment and solid waste disposal

Environment - international agreements
  party to: Hazardous Wastes
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: landlocked

People

Population: 66,824 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure
  0-14 years: 15% (male 5,382; female 4,883)
  15-64 years: 72% (male 25,463; female 22,837)
  65 years and over: 13% (male 4,160; female 4,099) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.22% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 10.58 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 5.27 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 6.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio
  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.11 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 1.01 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.1 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 4.08 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
  total population: 83.46 years
  male: 80.56 years
  female: 86.56 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.25 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality
  noun: Andorran(s)
  adjective: Andorran

Ethnic groups: Spanish 43%, Andorran 33%, Portuguese 11%, French 7%, other 6% (1998)

Religions: Roman Catholic (predominant)

Languages: Catalan (official), French, Castilian

Literacy
  definition: NA
  total population: 100%
  male: NA%
  female: NA%

Government

Country name
  conventional long form: Principality of Andorra
  conventional short form: Andorra
  local long form: Principat d'Andorra
  local short form: Andorra

Data code: AN

Government type: parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that retains as its heads of state a coprincipality; the two princes are the president of France and bishop of Seo de Urgel, Spain, who are represented locally by coprinces' representatives

Capital: Andorra la Vella

Administrative divisions: 7 parishes (parroquies, singular - parroquia); Andorra la Vella, Canillo, Encamp, La Massana, Escaldes-Engordany, Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria

Independence: 1278 (was formed under the joint suzerainty of France and Spain)

National holiday: Mare de Deu de Meritxell, 8 September (1278)

Constitution: Andorra's first written constitution was drafted in 1991; approved by referendum 14 March 1993; came into force 4 May 1993

Legal system: based on French and Spanish civil codes; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
  chief of state: French Coprince Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May 1995), represented by Mr. Frederic de SAINT-SERNIN (since NA); Spanish Coprince Episcopal Monseigneur Joan MARTI Alanis (since 31 January 1971), represented by Mr. Nemesi MARQUES OSTE (since NA)
  head of government: Executive Council President Marc FORNE Molne (since 21 December 1994)
  cabinet: Executive Council or Govern designated by the Executive Council president
  elections: Executive Council president elected by the General Council and formally appointed by the coprinces for a four-year term; election last held 16 February 1997 (next to be held NA 2001)
  election results: Marc FORNE Molne elected executive council president; percent of General Council vote - 64%

Legislative branch: unicameral General Council of the Valleys or Consell General de las Valls (28 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote, 14 from a single national constituency and 14 to represent each of the 7 parishes; members serve four-year terms)
  elections: last held 16 February 1997 (next to be held NA February 2001)
  election results: percent of vote by party - UL 57%, AND 21%, IDN 7%, ND 7%, other 8%; seats by party - UL 16, AND 6, ND 2, IDN 2, UPO 2

Judicial branch: Tribunal of Judges or Tribunal de Batlles; Tribunal of the Courts or Tribunal de Corts; Supreme Court of Justice of Andorra or Tribunal Superior de Justicia d'Andorra; Supreme Council of Justice or Consell Superior de la Justicia; Fiscal Ministry or Ministeri Fiscal; Constitutional Tribunal or Tribunal Constitucional

Political parties and leaders: Liberal Party of Andorra (Partit Liberal d'Andorra) or PLA [Marc FORNE]; Liberal Union or UL [Francesc CERQUEDA]; National Democratic Group or AND [Ladislau BARO SOLA]; National Democratic Initiative or IDN [Vincenc MATEU ZAMORA]; New Democracy or ND [Jaume BARTOMEU CASSANY]; Unio Parroquial d'Ordino or UPO [Simo DURO COMA] (Note: there are two other small parties)

International organization participation: CCC, CE, ECE, ICRM, IFRCS, Interpol, IOC, ITU, OSCE, UN, UNESCO, WHO, WIPO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US
  chief of mission: Ambassador Juli MINOVES-TRIQUELL (also Permanent Representative to the UN)
  chancery: 2 United Nations Plaza, 25th Floor, New York, NY 10017
  telephone: [1] (212) 750-8064
  FAX: [1] (212) 750-6630

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Andorra; the US Ambassador to Spain is accredited to Andorra; US interests in Andorra are represented by the Consulate General's office in Barcelona (Spain); mailing address: Paseo Reina Elisenda, 23, 08034 Barcelona, Spain; telephone: (3493) 280-2227; FAX: (3493) 205-7705

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red with the national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; the coat of arms features a quartered shield; similar to the flags of Chad and Romania, which do not have a national coat of arms in the center, and the flag of Moldova, which does bear a national emblem

Economy

Economy - overview: Tourism, the mainstay of Andorra's tiny, well-to-do economy, accounts for roughly 80% of GDP. An estimated 9 million tourists visit annually, attracted by Andorra's duty-free status and by its summer and winter resorts. Andorra's comparative advantage has recently eroded as the economies of neighboring France and Spain have been opened up, providing broader availability of goods and lower tariffs. The banking sector, with its "tax haven" status, also contributes substantially to the economy. Agricultural production is limited by a scarcity of arable land, and most food has to be imported. The principal livestock activity is sheep raising. Manufacturing consists mainly of cigarettes, cigars, and furniture. Andorra is a member of the EU Customs Union and is treated as an EU member for trade in manufactured goods (no tariffs) and as a non-EU member for agricultural products.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.2 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $18,000 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector
  agriculture: NA%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.62% (1998)

Labor force: 30,787 salaried employees (1998)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 1%, industry 21%, services 72%, other 6% (1998)

Unemployment rate: 0%

Budget
  revenues: $385 million
  expenditures: $342 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997)

Industries: tourism (particularly skiing), cattle raising, timber, tobacco, banking

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 116 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source
  fossil fuel: NA%
  hydro: NA%
  nuclear: NA%
  other: NA%

Electricity - consumption: NA kWh (1998 est.)

Electricity - exports: NA kWh

Electricity - imports: NA kWh; note - imports electricity from Spain and France

Agriculture - products: small quantities of tobacco, rye, wheat, barley, oats, vegetables; sheep

Exports: $58 million (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports - commodities: tobacco products, furniture

Exports - partners: France 34%, Spain 58% (1998)

Imports: $1.077 billion (c.i.f., 1998)

Imports - commodities: consumer goods, food, electricity

Imports - partners: Spain 48%, France 35%, US 2.3% (1998)

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid - recipient: none

Currency: 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes; 1 peseta (Pta) = 100 centimos; the French and Spanish currencies are used

Exchange rates: euros per US$1 - 0.9867 (January 2000), 0.9386 (1999); French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.65 (January 1999), 5.8995 (1998), 5.8367 (1997), 5.1155 (1996), 4.9915 (1995); Spanish pesetas (Ptas) per US$1 - 143.39 (January 1999), 149.40 (1998), 146.41 (1997), 126.66 (1996), 124.69 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 31,980 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 8,618 (1997)

Telephone system
  domestic: modern system with microwave radio relay connections between exchanges
  international: landline circuits to France and Spain

Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 15, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 16,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 0 (1997)

Televisions: 27,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways
  total: 269 km
  paved: 198 km
  unpaved: 71 km (1994 est.)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: none

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France and Spain

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

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